AKC Glossary

Welcome to the AKC Glossary. We have put together definitions for dog words that you may not be familiar with. If you have additional questions regarding the glossary, please contact our Special Services Department.

Abdomen The belly or under surface between the chest and the hindquarters.

Acetabulum The concave lateral portion of the sacrum that articulates with the head of the femur. Anatomically important in evaluating hip dysplasia.

Achondroplasia A form of genetic dwarfism specifically characterized by arrested development of the long bones. A defect in most breeds and a requisite in others (e.g., Dachshunds and Basset Hounds).

Action A term used to describe component functions of locomotion (e.g., action of the hocks) or as a synonym for gait in some standards.

Agent See handler.

Agility Excellent (AX) A suffix title conferred on dogs for qualifying the requisite number of times in the Agility Excellent class at AKC agility trials.

Agility trials An organized competition at which dogs negotiate a series of obstacles and jumps in three classes of increasing difficulty. Suffix titles are earned at each level (Novice, Open, and Excellent) by qualifying a predetermined number of times.

Agouti Used to describe Siberian Huskies, this color is the alternating bands of light and dark along each hair in the coat. Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

AKC Direct Authorized access, toll-free (800) telephone service to AKC customer service. Currently being tested with specific groups of AKC constituents.

Albino A relatively rare, genetically recessive condition resulting in white hair and pink eyes.

All-Breed show Conformation show where all breeds are exhibited.

Almond eyes An elongated eye shape, rather than rounded.

Amateur Field Champion (AFC) A prefix title conferred on dogs that have earned the required number of placements and/or points in amateur stakes at field trials for pointing breeds, retrievers, and spaniels.

Amble A relaxed, easy gait in which the legs on either side move almost, but not quite, as a pair. Often seen as the transition movement between the walk and other gaits.

American-bred class A regular class for all dogs (except champions) six months of age that whelped in the USA as a result of a mating that took place within the USA.

American Kennel Club An organization, established under the laws of the State of New York, whose goals are to adopt and enforce uniform rules regulating and governing dog shows and field trials; to regulate the conduct of persons interested in exhibiting, running, breeding, registering, purchasing, and selling dogs; to detect, prevent, and punish frauds in connection therewith; to protect the interest of its members; to maintain and publish an official stud book and an official gazette; and generally to do everything to advance the study, breeding, exhibiting, running, and maintenance of the purity of purebred dogs.

Angulation Angles created by bones meeting at their given joints.

Ankle See hock.

Ankylosis Abnormal immobility and fusion of a joint. Noted as cause of faulty tails in the German Shepherd dog standard.

Anterior The front assembly of the body.

Appeal A request to a subcommittee of the AKC's Board of Directors to either nullify or reduce the length of a suspension.

Apple head A round-shaped skull.

Apricot Used to describe Afghans, Pugs, Mastiffs, and Poodles, this color is a dull, medium-saturated orange (like the fruit of the same name). Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Apron Longer hair below the neck on the chest; also called the frill.

Arm The anatomical region between the shoulder and the elbow. Sometimes called the upper arm.

Arm card See armband.

Armband Number worn on an exhibitor's arm that corresponds to the number in the event catalog and the Judge's book. This number is the identifier that links the dog in the ring to that dog's information as published in the catalog. The number is also used to associate any points, awards, or placements with the dog's AKC registration number. Also called arm card.

Articulation Where two or more bones meet.

Artificial Insemination The introduction of semen into the female reproductive tract by artificial means.

Assistant, Assistant handler Person at a dog show who helps the handler care for the handler's dogs, prepare the dogs for the ring, and show the dogs.

Auction A public sale at which property or items of merchandise (here applied to dog and dog items) are sold to the highest bidder.

Babbler A hound that gives tongue when not on the trail.

Back The area of a dog's body extending from the withers to the croup.

Back to back (1) Conformation/Obedience: Two events held by the same club on consecutive days with AKC approval. (2) Performance: Two events held on consecutive days at the same location, either by the same club or by two clubs.

Badger A grayish-brown color that may be mixed with a few dark hairs (Great Pyrenees, Sealyham Terriers). Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Bad mouth Crooked teeth; when the mouth is closed, upper and lower teeth do not line up according to the standard of the breed.

Bait The food or object that an exhibitor uses to get a dog's attention or to have it look alert in the ring. The term bait or baiting can also be used to describe the action of getting the dog's attention using food or an object.

Balance When all the parts of the dog, moving or standing, produce a harmonious image.

Bandog A dog tied by day, released at night.

Bandy legs Legs that bend outward.

Barrel A rib region that is round in cross section.

Barrel hocks Hocks that turn out, causing the feet to toe in. Also called spread hocks.

Bat ear An ear that stands up, with a broad base, rounded at the top, with opening facing forward.

Bay The prolonged bark or voice of a hunting hound.

Beady Eyes that are small, round, and glittering, imparting an expression foreign to the breed.

Beard Long, thick hair on the underjaw.

Beauty spot A distinct spot, usually round, of colored hair, surrounded by the white spot of the blaze, on the topskull between the ears (Blenheim Spaniel or Boston Terrier).

Beaver A mixture of white, gray, brown, and black hairs. Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Bee-sting tail A relatively short, strong, straight tail that tapers to a point.

Beefy Over-heavy development of the hindquarters.

Belge Used to describe Brussels Griffon, this color is black and reddish-brown mixed. Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Belly The under surface of the abdomen.

Belton A color pattern in English Setters (named after a village in England) of light or dark ticking or roaning. Colors include: blue belton (black and white), orange belton (orange and white), lemon belton (lemon and white), and liver belton (liver and white). Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Bench show A dog show at which the dogs are kept on assigned benches when not being shown in competition so that interested people can view and learn more about them.

Bench Show Committee See Event Committee.

Best in Show At an All-Breed show, the only dog left undefeated at the end of all judging on that day.

Best of Breed Dog selected by the judge as the best representative of a particular breed on that day.

Best of Opposite Sex The best dog that is of the opposite sex to the Best of Breed winner.

Best of Variety At an All-Breed show, the award that is given in lieu of Best of Breed for those breeds divided by varieties. At specialty shows, the Best of Variety winners are judged in the Best of Breed competition. There are nine breeds that are divided into varieties: Cockers, Beagles, Collies, Dachshunds, Bull Terriers, Manchester Terriers, Chihuahuas, English Toy Spaniels, and Poodles.

Best of Winners The dog judged as best between the Winners Dog and Winners Bitch.

Bevy A flock of birds.

Bird dog A sporting dog bred and trained to hunt game birds.

Bird of prey eyes Light yellowish eyes, usually harsh in outlook.

Biscuit Usually used to describe Pekingese and Samoyeds, this color is a combination of light gray, yellow, and brown hues with medium brilliance and saturation (perhaps a gray-yellow). Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Bitch A female dog.

Bite The relative position of the upper and lower teeth when the jaws are closed. Bite positions include scissors, level, undershot, or overshot, depending on the breed.

Blanket The color of the coat on the back and upper part of the sides, between the neck and the tail.

Blaze A white stripe running up the center of the face usually between the eyes.

Blenheim Used to define the color of markings of the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel (red and white). Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Blinking Briefly pointing a bird and then leaving it, or upon finding a bird, avoiding retrieving it.

Blocky Square or cube-like formation of the head.

Blooded A dog of good breeding; pedigreed.

Blue Gray. Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Blue form A term used for an individual Dog Registration Application. See Dog Registration Application.

Blue merle A color pattern of black blotches or streaks on a blue-gray background. Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description. See Merle.

Blue slip A term used for an individual Dog Registration Application. See Dog Registration Application.

Blues A term used for an individual Dog Registration Application. See Dog Registration Application.

Bluies Colored portions of the coat have a distinctive bluish or smoky cast. This coloring is associated with extremely light or blue eyes and liver or gray eye rims, nose, and lip pigment. Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Board To feed, house, and care for a dog for a fee.

Board of Directors (AKC) Twelve individuals, all of whom must be AKC Delegates, who are elected by the Delegates to govern the AKC. They are elected to four-year terms and meet monthly. Their specific and general powers are described in detail in the AKC Bylaws.

Bobtail A dog born without a tail, or a dog with a tail docked very short. Often used as a name for the Old English Sheepdog.

Bodied up Mature, well-developed.

Body length Distance from the prosternum (front portion of the breastbone) to the posterior portion of the pelvic girdle.

Bone A type of connective tissue that forms the canine skeleton. Informally used to suggest a quantitative characteristic of limb bones in proportion to the overall size of the dog.

Bossy Over-development of the shoulder muscles.

Brace (1) Two of the same breed presented together as a pair. (2) Performance: To run dogs together in certain types of field events.

Break Term used to describe changing of coat color from puppies to adult stages.

Breastbone See sternum.

Bred-by-exhibitor class See Chapter 3, Section 7 of the Rules Applying to Dog Shows.

Breeching Fringing of longish hair at the back borders of the thigh regions.

Breed A domestic race of dogs (selected and maintained by man) with a common gene pool and characterized appearance and function.

Breed standard A word picture describing how the perfect dog of a breed should look, move, and behave. The breed standard is owned by the parent club, with full use extended to the AKC.

Breeder A person who breeds dogs. Under AKC rules, the breeder is the owner or the lessee of the dam on the date of mating that produced a litter.

Breeding age limits According to AKC Rules, Chapter 3, Section 5, the dam must be at least 8 months but not more than 12 years old on the date of mating. The sire must be at least 7 months old but not more than 12 years old on the date of mating.

Breeding particulars Sire, dam, date of birth, sex, color, etc.

Brick-shaped Rectangular.

Brindle A marking pattern used to describe many breeds, usually in conjunction with another color. Layering of black hairs in regions of lighter color (usually, fawn, brown, or gray) producing a tiger-striped pattern. Brindle is often used to describe Great Danes, Bulldogs, and Boxers. In Boxers, Reverse Brindle may occur; i.e., there is such a heavy concentration of black striping that the fawn background color barely, although clearly, shows through (appears black with fawn stripes). Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Brisket Usually refers to the sternum, but in some standards it refers to the entire thorax.

Brock A badger.

Broken color Self-color broken by white or another color. Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Broken-haired A rough, wiry coat.

Broken-up face A receding nose, together with a deep stop, wrinkle, and undershot jaw, as in the Bulldog or Pekingese.

Broker An individual or kennel that appears in the chain of title for a dog and whose business operations largely consist of buying and selling dogs.

Bronze Used to describe Newfoundlands, this color is usually a tinge in a black coat caused by the sun. It is like the color of the metal of the same name, which can be described as a moderately bright, yellowish brown. Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Brood bitch Female dog (bitch) used for breeding.

Brood bitch class Class where a brood bitch is shown and judged with at least two of her offspring. Judging is based on the quality of the get, not the dam. (A club may permit more offspring to be shown. The upper limit must be stated in the Premium List.)

Brows The ridges formed above the eyes by frontal bone contours.

Brush A bushy tail; a tail heavy with hair.

Brushing A gaiting fault, when parallel pasterns are so close that the legs brush in passing.

Buff Off-white to gold. Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Bull neck A heavy neck, well-muscled.

Bullbaiting An ancient sport in which a dog tormented a bull.

Burr The inside of the ear; i.e., the irregular formation visible within the cup.

Butterfly A partially unpigmented nose; i.e., dark, spotted with flesh color.

Buttocks The rump or hips.

Button ear A small, neat ear with the flap folding forward, covering the opening of the ear.

Bye At field trials, an odd dog remaining after the dogs entered in a stake have been paired in braces by drawing.

C.A.R. Companion Animal Recovery

C.G.C. Canine Good Citizen®

C.K.C. Canadian Kennel Club

Cafe au lait Usually used to describe Poodles, this color is the typical color of the French coffee of the same name, which is about equal parts of coffee and milk. It may be described as rich, well-saturated light brown. Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Camel back An arched back.

Canadian Kennel Club The recognized registry organization for purebred dogs in Canada.

Cancellation (1) Event: When an AKC event is canceled due to severe conditions, natural disaster, or concerns for public safety. The welfare of the dogs and the public are the main considerations when canceling an event. (2) Event entry: An exhibitor cancels a previously submitted entry. No entry may be canceled unless notice of the cancellation is received in writing or by telegram by the Superintendent or the Event Secretary prior to the closing date/hour for that event. (3) Award: Wins removed from a dog's record due to the dog's ineligibility to compete. (4) Registration: The act of deleting a dog or litter from AKC records after an investigation. Nullifies AKC registration of the dog or puppies and impacts the Stud Book.

Canid A family (Canidae) of carnivorous animals including dogs, wolves, coyotes, foxes, and jackals.

Canine Good Citizen (CGC) Outreach program, put on by a club, which tests a dog's behavior.

Canines The two upper and two lower large, conical, pointed teeth lateral to the incisors and anterior to the premolars.

Canter A gait with three beats to each stride, two legs moving separately and two as a diagonal pair. Slower than the gallop and not as tiring.

Cap Darkly shaded color pattern on the skull of some breeds.

Cape Long, thick hair covering the shoulders.

Care and conditions The minimum standard, set by the AKC, that individuals must maintain for their animals and facilities.

Carpals Bones of the wrist.

Case code Code that provides a very brief description of what a specific case is about. Located in the upper portion of the case information screen. Also called reason code.

Case involvement code A one-letter code, located in the lower portion of the case information, that identifies the individual on the case; for example, B=Subject (who the case is about), C=Complainant (the person who wrote in).

Case Management System (CMS) An on-line method of tracking activity in regard to cases. CMS uses information from the Registration system concerning dogs, litters, and referrals.

Castrate To remove the testicles of a male dog.

Cat foot Neat, round foot, with high-arched toes held closely together.

Catalog Booklet sold at an event that contains information on individual dogs entered in the event.

Certificate Document issued to individual (a) who has submitted a properly completed registration or dog transfer application or (b) whose dog has won a performance award.

Chain of title The complete sequence of ownership of a dog, including the date of transfer from litter owner (L/O) or recorded owner (R/O) to the new owner (N/O).

Champion (Ch.) A title conferred on a dog by the AKC as a result of defeating a specified number of dogs in specified competition at a series of AKC licensed or member dog shows.

Champion Tracker (CT) A title conferred by the AKC on a dog who has earned the TD, TDX, and VST titles.

Championship AKC title conferred on dogs after meeting requirements. Examples include:

AFC - Amateur Field Champion
Ch. - Conformation Champion
FC - Field Champion
OTCH - Obedience Champion
HC - Herding Champion

Character Expression, individuality, and general appearance and deportment as considered typical of a breed.

Cheeky Cheeks prominently rounded; thick, protruding.

Chest The part of the body or trunk that is enclosed by the ribs.

Chestnut Usually used to describe Irish Setters and Pharaoh Hounds, the color may be described as deep, heavily saturated, reddish brown (like the nut of the same name). Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

China eye A clear or spotted blue, light blue, or whitish eye.

Chippendale front Forelegs out at the elbows, pasterns close, and feet turned out. Named after the Chippendale chair. Also called fiddle front.

Chiseled Clean-cut in head, as contrasted with bumpy or bulging outlines, particularly beneath the eyes.

Chops Jowls or pendulous flesh of the lips and jaw.

Chorea A nervous jerking caused by involuntary contractions of the muscles (may be caused by distemper and/or hepatitis).

Cinnamon Usually used to describe Chow Chows. Like the color or the spice of the same name, this color is a lightly saturated, yellowish brown. Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Circuit A group of events clustered together at the same grounds or in the same region on consecutive days.

Clip The method of trimming the coat in some breeds.

Clipping When pertaining to gait, the back foot striking the front foot.

Cloddy Low, thickset, comparatively heavy.

Close mating A condition where there is less than 4 months and 15 days between either:
  1. The date of mating of a previously registered litter and the date of mating of a newly submitted litter application for the same dam
  2. The whelping date of a previously registered litter and the whelping date of a newly submitted litter application out of the same dam. Will cause the rejection of litter application for questioning.
Close-coupled Comparatively short from the last rib to the commencement of the hindquarters; occasionally used to characterize a comparative shortness from withers to hipbones.

Closing date Month, day, year, and time after which no entry can be accepted for a particular event.

Clubs Organizations approved to hold events under AKC rules and regulations. Clubs progress through different designations as part of the AKC approval process: sanctioned (new), licensed, and member.

Cluster Four All-Breed shows held in four consecutive days at the same location.

Co-owners One or more individuals recorded in the AKC records as the owner of a dog.

Coarse Lacking refinement.

Coat The dog's hair covering. Most breeds have two coats: an outer coat and an undercoat.

Cobby Compact, with a short body.

Collar (1) The markings around the neck, usually white. (2) A leather, nylon, or chain neck band for restraining or leading a dog when the leash is attached.

Compact Term used to describe the firmly joined union of various body parts. Also used to describe a short- to medium-length coat, very close lying, with a dense undercoat and giving a smooth outline.

Companion Animal Recovery (CAR) A national database in which any companion animal with a form of positive identification, such as a microchip or tattoo, can be enrolled.

Companion Dog (CD) A title conferred on a dog by the AKC as a result of having won certain minimum scores in Novice classes at a specified number of AKC licensed or member obedience trials.

Companion Dog Excellent (CDX) A title conferred on a dog by the AKC as a result of having won certain minimum scores in Open classes at a specified number of AKC licensed or member obedience trials.

Complainant A customer who calls or writes in about a problem or discrepancy.

Condition Health as shown by the coat, skin, general appearance, and behavior.

Conditions letter A letter sent to a humane society, animal control, or governmental body indicating that at the time an AKC inspection was conducted, the kennel, in the opinion of the AKC inspector, had conditions that were unsafe or unsanitary.

Conformation The form and structure, make and shape; arrangement of the parts in conformance with breed standards.

Conformation show Dog show where the dogs are judged on how closely they adhere to the breeds standard. Also known as All-Breed, Group, or Specialty shows.

Congenital Present at birth; may have genetic or environmental causes.

Copper Usually used with white to describe Siberian Huskies. Like the color of the metal of the same name, this color is a bright, brownish red. Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Corky Active, lively, alert.

Correct litter (CL) A request made by the litter owner to correct a registered litter.

Corrected certificate (CC) May be requested only by the recorded owner.

Corrected papers Papers issued to the litter owner or recorded owner of a dog whose records have been corrected by the AKC due to a discrepancy.

Correction (1) Event correction: An adjustment made to an event record. Corrections are published in the AKC Awards publication. (2) Registration correction: See correct litter or corrected papers.

Corresponding date Traditional day of the week and month of the year typically assigned to an event. Each weekend in a year is assigned a number from 1 (first weekend) to 52 (last weekend). For example, if a club held its show on Saturday of the 25th weekend of the year, the Corresponding date would be the day and month corresponding to the Saturday of the 25th weekend. Performance: Different systems apply to various performance events.

Couple Two hounds.

Coupling The part of the body between the ribs and the pelvis/hindquarters; the loin.

Coursing The sport of chasing prey with Sighthounds.

Covering ground The distance traveled by a dog with each stride as it gaits.

Cow-hocked Hocks turning in, accompanied by toeing out of rear feet.

Crabbing Dog moves with its body at an angle to the line of travel. Also called sidewinding.

Crank tail A tail carried down and resembling a crank in shape.

Crate Portable container used for shipping, transporting, or housing dogs. Also called cage or kennel.

Cream Used to describe many breeds, this color is a lowly saturated, light-to-medium yellow. Often, it has just a little more color than white. Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Crest The upper, arched portion of the neck.

Cropping, Crop The cutting or trimming of ear leather to encourage it to stand erect.

Crossbred A dog whose sire and dam are representatives of two different breeds. A crossbred dog cannot be registered by the AKC.

Crossing over Unsound gaiting action that starts with twisting elbows and ends with crisscrossing and toeing out. Also called knitting and purling and weaving.

Croup The region of the pelvic girdle, formed by the sacrum and surrounding tissue.

Crown The top part of the head; the topskull.

Cruelty A conviction or admission in a court or tribunal of competent jurisdiction, as a result of a finding by a federal or state administrative agency, whereby an individual was found to have engaged in conduct that would endanger the life or health of an animal or cause undue suffering.

Cry The baying or music of the hounds.

Cryptorchid The adult whose testicles are abnormally retained in the abdominal cavity. Bilateral cryptorchidism involves both sides; i.e., neither testicle has descended into the scrotum. Unilateral cryptorchidism (also called monorchid) involves one side only; i.e., one testicle is retained or hidden, and one is descended.

Culotte The longer hair on the back of the thighs.

Cur See crossbred.

Cushion Fullness or thickness of the upper lips. (Pekingnese)

Customer number An identification number assigned to each person or firm at the first use of the AKC's registration or fulfillment system.

Cynology The study of canines.

Dam The female parent.

Dapple A mottled or variegated coat color pattern. Single dapple is expressed as lighter color areas contrasting with the darker base color, which may be acceptable color. Looks like the merle effect in Shelties, Collies, etc., except that it is found in Dachshunds. Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Date of mating Date of sexual coupling of the dog and bitch.

Date of whelping Date of birth.

Deadgrass Tan or dull straw color. Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Delegate A representative to the AKC of a member club.

Dentition Forty-two adult teeth, including incisors, canines, premolars, and molars.

Depth of chest An indication of the volume of space for heart and lungs, and commonly referenced to the elbow (i.e., above, at the level of, or below).

Derby Field trial competition for young, novice sporting dogs usually up to two years of age.

Dewclaw An extra claw on the inside of the leg; a rudimentary fifth toe, removed on most breeds.

Dewlap Loose, pendulous skin under the throat and neck.

Diagonals Right front and left rear legs constitute the right diagonal; left front and right rear legs constitute the left diagonal. In the trot, the diagonals move together.

Diehard Nickname of the Scottish Terrier.

Digit Toe.

Dilute Washed out color. Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Disallowed Placements/Awards removed from a dog's record for a specified reason. For conformation events, the dog is counted in computing points. For performance events, the dog may or may not be counted, depending on the event.

Discipline Procedure whereby an individual is suspended from all AKC privileges for violations of rules and regulations.

Dish-faced A slight concaveness of foreface when viewed in profile.

Dishing Weaving.

Disqualify (1) Conformation/Obedience: A decision made by a judge or an event committee following a determination that a dog has a condition that makes it ineligible for any further competition under the dog show rules or obedience regulations, under the standard for its breed or due to an undesirable feature of the dog that results in this action. See one-time disqualification or three-time disqualification. (2) Performance: Varies by event. Contact the Performance Department.

Distemper teeth Teeth discolored or pitted as a result of distemper or other disease or deficiency.

Divergent hocks Hocks that turn out. Barrel hocks.

Division Group of states that all have the same point schedule.

DNA A unique genetic makeup. DNA testing is done to prove the actual parentage of an animal.

DNA test A test to determine identity. The AKC has used this test to determine paternity. Permission must be obtained from the AKC Board for testing, and the testing must be conducted by an AKC-approved facility.

Dock To shorten the tail.

Dog Male dog or term used to refer generically to all dogs, male or female.

Dog Registration Application Used to register an individual dog of a registered litter. Also called blue form, blue slip, or blues.

Dog show See conformation show.

Domed Evenly rounded in topskull; curved, not flat.

Domino Reverse facial mask pattern on some breeds. Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Dorsal The portion of the dog carried farthest from the substratum (i.e., away from the ground) during normal locomotion.

Double coat An outer coat resistant to weather and protective against brush and brambles, together with an undercoat of softer hair for warmth and waterproofing. A dog with this type of coat can also be referred to as a double coat.

Double dapple Varying amounts of white coloring occurring over the body in addition to the dapple pattern. Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Double groups Judging two groups simultaneously at a conformation show.

Double handling The act of someone, other than the handler, getting a dog's attention in the ring to help the dog to show or look better.

Down in pastern Weak or faulty pastern set at an incorrect angle.

Down-faced The muzzle inclining downwards from the skull to the tip of the nose.

Drag A trail prepared by dragging along the ground a bag impregnated (usually) with animal scent.

Drawing Selection by lot of dogs to be run, and in which pairs, in a field trial stake.

Drive A solid thrusting of the hindquarters, denoting sound locomotion.

Drop ear The ear leather folds over; not erect or prick ears.

Dropper A bird dog cross.

Dry neck The skin taut, neither loose nor wrinkled.

Dual champion A dog that has won both a conformation and a field trial championship.

Dudley nose Flesh-colored.

Ears The auditory organ, consisting of three regions: inner ear, middle ear, and the most important pinna (or leather), which is supported by cartilage and which affects the expression of all breeds.

Earth Dog events Non-competitive tests that gauge the trained and natural abilities of Dachshunds and small terriers to follow game to ground.

East-west front Incorrect positioning that causes the feet to turn outwards.

Elbow The posterior region of the articulation between the arm and forearm.

Elbows out Turning out or off from the body; not held close.

Electronic collar A collar that provides a warning sound and/or an electric stimulation to the dog upon receipt of an electronic signal given by the user. Used as a training device.

Electronic transmission of event results All results from an event are entered and electronically transmitted to the AKC by the Superintendent.

Entire A dog whose reproductive system is complete.

Entropion A complex genetic condition that results in the turning in of the upper or lower eyelid, potentially resulting in corneal ulceration.

Entry (submittal) service A service that submits the entries for its clients to a superintendent or show secretary.

Equal mating When a litter is registered and another application is received to register another litter from the same dam with the same date of birth.

Even bite Meeting of upper and lower incisors with no overlap. Also called level bite.

Event A structured activity testing the conformation, training, or instinctive abilities of purebred dogs.

Event Chairman The member of the event-giving club who is responsible for proper planning, conducting, and reporting the results of the event. Any of these duties may be delegated to other people or organizations, such as the Event Secretary or Superintendent, but the Event Chairman is ultimately responsible for these duties.

Event Committee Committee at an event that carries the powers of the AKC and the corresponding duty to use its authority to deal with any misconduct that may occur in connection with its event. The committee is comprised of five members of the club sponsoring the show, with one having the designation of Chairman. Also called Bench Show Committee, Obedience Trial Committee, or Field Trial Committee.

Event Committee hearing A means for the Event Committee to deal with allegations concerning conduct deemed to be prejudicial to the interests of purebred dogs.

Event hours Hours of the day when the show is officially open.

Event registration number (ERN) A number assigned to an AKC-registered, American-owned dog enabling it to compete in events in Canada.

Event Secretary Person who receives entries for an event.

Ewe neck A neck in which the topline is concave rather than convex.

Excuse (dog) Asking the exhibitor to remove a dog from the event for any reason listed in the rules or regulations pertaining to competition. In conformation and obedience events, a dog that is excused does not count as having been present in computing points. In performance events, a dog that is excused may or may not be counted in computing points, depending on the event.

Exercise pen, ex pen A portable enclosure that allows dogs to exercise while at dog shows.

Exhibitor Person who owns or co-owns an entry, or, is an agent, handler, or professional handler for an entry, at a dog show. The term Exhibit has the same scope of definition as Exhibitor.

Expired blues An expired AKC dog registration. Every application is valid one year from date of issue. The expiration date is located in the upper right hand corner of the application. See a Chapter 3, Section 4, paragraph 3, of the Rules Applying to Registration and Discipline.

Expression The general appearance of all the features of the head.

Extension (1) A specified amount of time granted by the AKC to an owner to enter a dog in an event prior to it becoming individually registered. (2) The reach (front) and drive (rear) that the dog exhibits during motion.

Eyeteeth The upper canines.

Failure to receive papers Customers who did not receive AKC registration papers from a breeder, broker, pet shop, or other dog owner when they acquired their dog.

Fall Hair overhanging the face.

Fallow Pale cream to light fawn color; pale; pale yellow; yellow-red. Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Fancier A person especially interested and active in some phase of the sport of purebred dog shows.

Fangs See canines.

Fawn A brown, red-yellow with hue of medium brilliance. Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Feathering Longer fringe of hair on ears, legs, tail, or body.

Federation Cynologique Internationale (FCI) Based in Belgium, FCI licenses international shows in its 72 member countries, including the well-known annual World Show. FCI maintains breed standards for all its 341 recognized breeds. It does not operate a registry but accepts pedigrees for show purposes from the registries of its member countries. FCI has a reciprocity agreement with the AKC, the Canadian Kennel Club, and The Kennel Club (of England), which are not members.

Femur Thigh bone. Extends from hip to stifle.

Fetch (1) The retrieve of game by the dog. (2) The command to retrieve game.

Fibula One of the two bones of the leg (i.e., the lower thigh, second thigh, or lower leg).

Fiddle front Forelegs out at elbows, pasterns close, and feet turned out. French front.

Field Champion (FC) A title conferred on a dog by the AKC as a result of defeating a specified number of dogs in specified competition at a series of AKC licensed or member field trials.

Field Dog Stud Book (FDSB) A document published by the American Field Publishing Company in Chicago. It is possible for a dog to be registered with both the FDSB and the AKC, but not every dog is eligible.

Field trial A competition for certain hound or sporting breeds in which dogs are judged on ability and style in tracking, finding, coursing, or retrieving game.

Field trial class For dogs and bitches that have placed in an AKC licensed or member field trial. In certain breeds, Field Trial Judges Awards of Merit and Parent Club Field Titles may be included in eligibility requirements.

Filled-up face Smooth facial contours, free of excessive muscular development.

Finished Term used to describe when a dog has completed its title requirements.

Fixed (1) See neuter. (2) Surgical procedure that permanently changes the carriage of the tail or ears. Such a procedure renders a dog ineligible to compete in AKC Conformation events.

Flag A long tail carried high. Feathering on the tail.

Flank The side of the body between the last rib and the hip.

Flare A blaze that widens as it approaches the topskull.

Flat-sided Ribs insufficiently rounded as they approach the sternum or breastbone.

Flews Upper lip pendulous, particularly at their inner corners.

Floating rib The last (or 13th rib), which is unattached to the other ribs.

Fluffies A coat of extreme length with exaggerated feathering on ears, chest, legs and feet, underparts, and hindquarters. Trimming such a coat does not make it any more acceptable.

Flush To drive birds from cover, to force them to take flight; to spring.

Flushing breeds Term commonly applied to those spaniel breeds that typically flush or force a bird from cover.

Flying ears Any characteristic drop ears or semi-prick ears that stand or fly.

Flying trot A fast gait in which all four feet are off the ground for a brief second during each half stride. Because of the long reach, the oncoming hind feet step beyond the imprint left by the front. Also called suspension trot.

Forearm The portion of the forelimb between the arm and the wrist.

Foreface The front portion of the skull that articulates with the cranium.

Foreign Dog Registries Registry organizations whose pedigrees are accepted by AKC registration for imported dogs.

Forequarters The combined front assembly from its uppermost component, the shoulder blade, down to the feet.

Forgery When one individual falsely represents another individual's signature.

Former owner (F/O) One who transferred the dog.

Foster mother A bitch used to nurse puppies not her own.

Foul color A color or marking not characteristic for the breed. Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Foundation stock The first generation of a particular breed registered with the AKC.

Foundation Stock Service® An optional record keeping service for all purebred breeds not currently registerable with the AKC.

Foxy Sharp expression; pointed nose with short foreface.

Fraud Submitting inaccurate information that affects the AKC Stud Book.

French choke, martingale Examples of choke collars. See training collar.

French front See fiddle front.

Fresh extended (chilled) semen Semen that is extracted and extended by a licensed veterinarian. The semen must be extracted from a male within the USA and shipped to a point within the USA only. This type of semen must be used within a specified period of time.

Frill See apron.

Fringes See feathering.

Frogface Extending nose accompanied by a receding jaw, usually overshot.

Front The forepart of the body as viewed head-on; i.e., forelegs, chest, brisket, and shoulder line.

Frontal bones The anterior bones of the cranium forming the forehead.

Frozen semen Semen that is extracted, frozen, and stored for future use by a licensed veterinarian. The collection must be reported to the AKC, and the collector/storer must be an AKC-approved facility and in compliance with AKC record keeping practices.

FRP Failure to Receive Papers.

FSS® Foundation Stock Service®.

Furnishings The long hair on the extremities (including head and tail) of certain breeds.

Furrow A slight indentation of median line down the center of the skull to the stop.

Futurity A non-regular competition at specialty shows or field trials for young dogs that requires a series of nominations and associated fees prior to the date on which the Futurity is judged. These stages usually consist of nomination of the bitch after she is bred, nomination of the litter after it is whelped, and/or nomination of individual puppies from the litter. The number of nomination stages, fees, and other conditions are set at the discretion of the club holding the Futurity.

Gait The pattern of footsteps at various rates of speed, each pattern distinguished by a particular rhythm and footfall.

Gallop Fastest of dog gaits; has a four-beat rhythm and often an extra period of suspension during which the body is propelled through the air with all four feet off the ground.

Game Hunted wild birds or animals.

Gaskin The lower or second thigh.

Gay tail A tail carried above the horizontal level of the back.

Gazehound See Sighthound.

Genealogy Recorded family descent. Pedigree.

Gestation Period The time between mating and birth (it averages 63 days).

Get Offspring.

Goose neck An elongated, tubular-shaped neck. Also called swan neck.

Goose rump Too steep or sloping a croup.

Goose step Accentuated lift of the forelimbs.

Grand Nite Champion (GNC) A prefix title conferred on dogs that have acquired a Nite Championship title and have won the requisite number of first places at AKC Coonhound night hunts.

Gray form Term used to refer to the Supplemental Transfer Statement.

Grizzle A mixture of black or red hairs with white hairs. Frequently, a bluish-gray or iron-gray color. Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Groom To brush, comb, trim, or otherwise make a dog's coat neat.

Grooming area Space at a dog show that is designated for grooming dogs.

Group class A class made up of dogs designated Best of Breed or Best of Variety for their specific group. No separate entry is made for this class. Each group winner is eligible to compete in the Best in Show competition.

Group show Conformation dog show, at which championship points may be awarded, that permits participants or breeds exclusive to an individual group. Examples are: all-terrier show, toy show, etc.

Groups The breeds as grouped into seven divisions by the AKC to facilitate judging. The seven groups are: sporting, hound, working, toy, terrier, non-sporting, and herding.

Guard hairs The longer, smoother, stiffer hairs that grow through and normally conceal the undercoat.

Gun dog A dog trained to find or pursue game.

Hackles Hairs on neck and back raised involuntarily in fright or anger.

Hackney action A high lifting of the front feet accompanied by flexing of the wrist like that of a hackney horse.

Hallmark A distinguishing characteristic.

Handler Person 18 years old or older, other than an the owner or co-owner, designated by the owner or co-owner of an entered dog to be the handler of, and the person responsible for, the dog at the event.

Hard-mouthed A dog that crushes or renders game unfit for consumption.

Hare foot Foot on which the two center digits are appreciably longer than the outside and inside toes of the foot, and the arching of the toes is less marked, making the foot appear longer overall.

Harlequin Patched or pied coloration, usually black or gray on white. Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Harness A leather or cloth strap shaped around the shoulders and chest, with a ring at its top for the lead.

Haunch bones The hip bones.

Haw A third eyelid or membrane on the inside corner of the eye.

Head The front portion of the dog, including the muzzle and the cranium.

Head planes Viewed in profile, the contours of the top portion of the skull from occiput to stop, and the foreface from stop to tip of the nose.

Heat (1) Seasonal period of the female. Estrus, in season. (2) Performance: A competitive running of dogs.

Heel Command to a dog to keep close beside its handler.

Height Vertical measurement from the withers to the ground; usually called shoulder height.

Herding group Group of dogs bred to help shepherds and ranchers herd or work livestock.

Herding Champion (HC) A prefix title conferred on dogs that have earned the required number of points and placements in the Herding Excellent class at AKC herding trials.

Herding Excellent (HX) A suffix title conferred on dogs that have qualified the requisite number of times in the Advanced class at AKC herding trials.

Herding Intermediate (HI) A suffix title conferred on dogs that have qualified the requisite number of times in the Intermediate class at AKC herding trials.

Herding Started (HS) A suffix title conferred on dogs that have qualified the requisite number of times in the Started class at AKC herding trials.

Herding Tested (HT) A suffix title conferred on dogs that have passed the requisite number of AKC herding tests.

Hie on A command to urge the dog on; used in hunting or in field trials.

High standing Tall and upstanding, with plenty of leg.

Hindquarters Rear assembly of the dog (pelvis, thighs, hocks, and paws).

Hip Dysplasia Abnormal formation of the hip joint.

Hock The collection of bones of the hind leg forming the joint between the second thigh and the metatarsus; the dog's true heel.

Hocking out Spread hocks.

Hocks well let down Hock joints close to the ground.

Holt The lair of the fox or other animal in tree roots, banks, drains, or similar hideouts. Lodge.

HomeAgain Brand name for microchips sold by Schering Plough to veterinarians for permanent identification of companion animals.

Honorable scars Scars from injuries suffered as a result of work.

Hound group Group of dogs used for hunting game by scent or sight.

Hound-marked A coloration composed of white, tan, or black. The ground color, usually white, may be marked with tan and/or black patches on the head, back, legs, and tail. The extent and the exact location of such markings, however, differ in breeds and individual dogs. Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Hucklebones Top of the hipbones.

Humerus The bone of the arm (i.e., the upper arm).

Hunting tests Non-competitive field events for flushing breeds, retrieving breeds, and pointing breeds.

Identification On-dog system whereby a dog may be identified to a record; i.e., microchip or tattoo.

Imported semen Frozen semen that is imported from another country.

Impure breeding See crossbred.

In whelp Pregnant.

Inbreeding The mating of two closely related dogs of the same breed.

Incapacitation When a recorded owner is unable to sign AKC documents due to an illness or handicap.

Incapacitation form A form completed by an individual acting on behalf of an incapacitated person. The form must be notarized and will not contain the signature of the incapacitated person.

Incisors The six upper and six lower front teeth between the canines. The point of contact forms the bite.

Individual registration When an individual dog becomes AKC-registered.

Inspection (American Kennel Club) An on-site review of an individual's ownership, breeding, and litter records. An inspection of the identification practices and kennel conditions.

Inspection report A form used by AKC Inspectors when conducting an inspection of an individual's records, identification practices, and kennel conditions.

Interbreeding The breeding together of dogs of different breeds.

Intermediate(s) Person(s) in the chain of title that are between the litter owner(s) and the final recorded owner.

Iris The colored membrane surrounding the pupil of the eye.

Isabella Usually used to describe Doberman Pinschers, this color is similar to fawn or light bay, but has more saturation and brilliance (similar to a bay-colored horse). Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

ISD The AKC's Information Systems Department.

Jabot The apron of the Schipperke; the part situated between the front legs.

Jobber In terms used by the AKC, a synonym for dog broker.

Jowls Flesh of the lips and jaws.

Judge Official approved by the AKC to evaluate dogs in specific AKC events.

Judge's book Book in which the judge records the results from the event being officiated.

Judging schedule A program that lists the time scheduled for judging of each breed or variety, obedience class, and other classes that are offered for the event on that day. Also called Judging program.

Junior Courser (JC) A suffix title conferred on dogs that pass the required number of Junior Courser tests at AKC lure coursing tests.

Junior Earthdog (JE) A suffix title conferred on dogs that have qualified the required number of times in Junior Earthdog classes in AKC earthdog tests.

Junior Hunter (JH) A suffix title conferred on dogs that have qualified the required number of times in Junior tests at hunting tests for spaniels, retrievers, and pointing breeds.

Junior Showmanship AKC-sponsored class that evaluates the abilities of the young handler, not the quality of the dog.

Keel The rounded outline of the lower chest.

Kennel Building or enclosure where dogs are kept.

Kennel name Registered or protected name used in a dog's registered name. Also called prefix.

Kennel report A form filled out by an AKC Inspector during an on-site inspection, noting any deficiencies in the dogs or facilities.

Kink tail A deformity of the caudal vertebrae producing a bent tail.

Kiss marks Tan spots on the cheeks and over the eyes. Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Knee See stifle.

Knee joint See stifle.

Kneecap The stifle, with the bone known as the patella.

Knuckling over Faulty structure of wrist joint allowing it to flex forward under the weight of the standing dog.

Lame Irregularity or impairment of locomotion.

Landseer The black and white Newfoundland dog, so-called from the name of the famous painter who used such dogs as models.

Lateral Pertaining to the side.

Layback The angle of the shoulder blade as compared with the vertical plane viewed from the side.

Layon The angle of the shoulder blade as compared with the vertical plane viewed from the front.

Lead A strap, cord, or chain attached to the collar or harness, or sometimes simply around the neck, for the purpose of restraining or leading the dog. Also called leash.

Lease The assignment of breeding rights by the recorded owner of a bitch to another person for a specified period of time. Only bitches may be leased.

Lease form (AKC) A form that must be completed by the recorded owner and lessee to accomplish the leasing of a bitch. This form is sent to the AKC before the litter application or along with the litter application to ensure that the lessee is recorded appropriately on the litter.

Leather The flap of the ear; the outer ear supported by cartilage and surrounding tissue.

Legal ownership Ownership that is governed under rules of law.

Lemon Used to describe pointers, this color is a brilliant, medium-saturated yellow. Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Lessee The person who leases a dam.

Lessor The person who is the recorded owner of the dam at the time of leasing.

Level bite When the front teeth (incisors) of the upper and lower jaws meet exactly edge to edge. Also called pincer bite, equal bite, or even bite.

Level gait Dog moves without rise or fall of withers.

License Formal permission granted by the AKC to a non-member club to hold an event.

Licensed club Clubs approved to hold events at which championships and/or titles may be won.

Lien The right to take and sell or hold the property of a debtor as security or payment of a debt.

Limited registration Restricted registration of offspring that prohibits both AKC registration of any puppies produced by this dog and participation in conformation events. Limited registration is assigned to a dog by its breeder on its Dog Registration Application. It can be removed only by the breeder.

Line breeding The practice of mating a dog to a member of an earlier generation of the dog's bloodline.

Lippy Pendulous lips or lips that do not fit tightly.

List of Foreign Registries A list of registries from which the AKC may accept documentation to be used in registering dogs whelped outside of the USA in the AKC Stud Book. Refer to the AKC Special Registry Services for Imported and Domestic Dogs for an updated list.

Litter The puppy or puppies of one whelping.

Litter application Form used to register a litter.

Litter complement The number of puppies in a litter, generally expressed in the number by sex; for example, 3M2F.

Litter kit A set of Dog Registration Applications issued to the litter owner.

Litter owner (L/O) The recorded owner(s) or lessee of the dam on the whelping date (birth) of the litter.

Liver Used to describe many breeds, this deep, reddish brown color includes various shades of chocolate brown, from light to very dark. Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Loaded shoulders Excessive development of the muscles associated with the shoulder blades.

Loin The region of the body associated with the lumbar portions of the vertebrae column (i.e., behind the ribs and in front of the pelvic girdle).

Loose slung Construction in which the attachment of the muscles at the shoulders is looser than desirable.

Lower thigh See second thigh.

Lumbar vertebrae The seven vertebrae of the loin region.

Lumbering An awkward gait.

Lurcher A crossbred hound.

Lure coursing Organized events for Sighthounds, which chase an artificial lure over a course.

Luxation Dislocation of an anatomical structure.

Mad dog A rabid dog.

Mahogany Used to describe several breeds, this color is a medium-saturated, dull, reddish brown. Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Major win A win that consists of 3, 4, or 5 points in conformation events and some performance events.

Making a wheel Term given to the circling of the tail over the back.

Management Discipline Committee AKC staff members who review discipline files and set a term of suspension within the Board-directed guidelines.

Mandible The bone of the lower jaw.

Mane Long, thick hair on top and sides of neck.

Mantle Dark-shaded portion of the coat on shoulders, back, and sides.

Manubrium The first sternabra of the chest.

Marcel effect Regular continuous waves (specified in the American Water Spaniel standard).

Markings Contrasting color or pattern in a dog's coat.

Mask Dark shading on the foreface.

Master Agility Excellent (MX) A suffix agility title conferred on dogs that have earned the Agility Excellent title and that have qualified the required number of additional times in the Agility Excellent class at AKC agility trials.

Master Courser (MC) A suffix title conferred on dogs that have acquired the Senior Courser title and have qualified the required number of additional times in either Open or Special stakes at AKC lure coursing trials.

Master Earthdog (ME) A suffix title conferred on dogs that have qualified the required number of times in the Master test at AKC earthdog events.

Master Hunter (MH) A suffix title conferred on dogs that have qualified the required number of times in Master tests at hunting tests for Spaniels, Retrievers, and Pointing Breeds.

Match show Usually an informal dog show at which no championship points are awarded.

Mate To breed a dog and bitch.

Mating date See date of mating.

Measure out Measured height at withers was determined to be outside the limits for that breed as set forth in the breed standard.

Medial Toward the mid-line of the dog.

Median line See furrow.

Member clubs Eligible clubs that have fulfilled all of the sanctioned and licensed requirements; these clubs select AKC delegates to attend the AKC's quarterly meetings.

Merle A marking pattern, used in conjunction with another color, to describe Shetland Sheepdogs, Collies, Great Danes, and Australian Shepherds. The color is characterized by a marbling effect of dark patches against a lighter background of the same color. Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Metatarsus Rear pastern.

Microchip A rice-sized device encoded with a unique and unalterable number. The chip is implanted just under the skin in the scruff of the neck and is read by a scanner.

Microfilm A film on which printed materials are photographed greatly reduced in size. AKC applications and correspondence are microfilmed when processed.

Milk teeth First teeth. Also called baby teeth.

Miscellaneous class Transitory class for breeds desiring to advance to full AKC recognition.

Mismark (1) Coat or color. (2) A dog that has coat coloration or markings not conforming to that which is acceptable for the breed.

Mode I (event results) Results of events that are entered by the AKC. The club or superintendent submits the results in printed or written form.

Mode II (event results) Results of events that are transmitted electronically but require manual entry of placements and clean-up by the AKC.

Molars The posterior teeth of the dental arcade, with two on each side in the upper jaw and three on each side in the lower jaw in an adult with correct dentition.

Molera Incomplete, imperfect, or abnormal ossification of the skull.

Mongrel See crossbred.

Monorchid A dog that has one testicle retained or hidden in its abdominal cavity. See cryptorchid.

Mottled Pattern of dark roundish blotches on a lighter background. Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Move To gait a dog in a pattern prescribed by the judge.

Move-up (1) Events: Dogs that, according to their owner's records, have completed the requirements for a championship after the closing of entries for the show (but whose championships are unconfirmed by the AKC) may be transferred from one of the regular classes to the Best of Breed or Variety competition. (2) Event Records: If an award in any of the regular classes is canceled, the dog judged in the next order of merit will be given that award. The result of the award will be counted the same as if it had been the original award.

Moving close When the hocks turn in and pasterns drop straight to the ground and move parallel to one another, the dog is moving close in the rear.

Moving straight Term descriptive of balanced gaiting in which angle of inclination begins at the shoulder, or hip joint, and limbs remain relatively straight from these points to the pads of the feet, even as legs flex or extend in reaching or thrusting.

Multum in Parvo Latin phrase meaning much in little, quoted in the Pug standard.

Music The baying of the hounds.

Mustard Usually used to describe Dandie Dinmont Terriers, this color is like the color of the spice; i.e., a dull, highly saturated, brown-yellow. Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Mute To run mute, to be silent on the trail; i.e., to trail without baying or barking.

Muzzle (1) The head in front of the eyes: nasal bone, nostrils, and jaws. Foreface. (2) A strap or wire cage attached to the foreface to prevent the dog from biting or from picking up food.

Muzzle band White marking around the muzzle.

National Specialty Any event held by the parent club.

National Amateur Field Champion (NAFC) A prefix title or designation conferred on a dog that has won the National Amateur Championship field trial for its breed.

National Amateur Field Championship Annual field trial event held open to dogs that qualify for entry. Professional handlers cannot participate.

National Field Championship Annual field trial event open to dogs that qualify for entry.

National Field Champion (NFC) A prefix title or designation conferred on a dog that has won the National Championship field trial for its breed.

Neck well set-on Good neckline, merging gradually with withers, forming a pleasing transition into topline.

Neuter To castrate or spay.

New owner (N/O) Person who is applying to register or record the transfer of a dog.

Nick A breeding that produces desirable puppies.

Nighthunt Performance competition for Coonhounds.

Nite Champion (NC) A prefix title conferred on dogs that have won the required number of points and placements in AKC Coonhound night hunts.

Nonbreeding contract (Canada) A limitation sometimes put on a Canadian dog by its breeder to limit breeding; therefore, not eligible to compete in AKC events. Restriction may be lifted by the dog's breeder.

Non-qualifying A score that is lower than the number designated as a qualifying score.

Non-slip retriever Term used in connection with off-lead retriever field trials.

Non-sporting group Group of dogs that may share attributes, but don't fit into the mold of other groups.

Nose (1) Organ of olfaction. (2) The ability to detect by means of scent.

Novice Agility (NA) A suffix title conferred on dogs that have qualified the required number of times in the Novice Agility class at AKC agility trials.

Novice class A regular class for dogs six months of age or over that have not, prior to the closing of entries for the show, won three first prizes in the Novice class, a first prize in Bred-by-Exhibitor, American-Bred, or Open classes, nor have one or more points toward their championship.

Obedience trial (licensed) An event held under AKC rules at which a leg toward an obedience degree can be earned.

Obedience Trial Champion (OTCH) A prefix used with the name of a dog that has been recorded an Obedience Trial Champion by the AKC as the result of having won the number of points and First Place wins specified in the current Obedience Regulations.

Oblique shoulders Shoulders well laid back.

Obliquely placed eyes Eyes with outer corners higher than their inner ones.

Occipital protuberance A prominently raised occiput characteristic of some sporting and hound breeds.

Occiput Dorsal, posterior point of the skull.

Old colony Dogs in a person's possession at the time of their suspension that cannot be used at reinstatement.

On-dog identification A system of tagging, tattooing, or microchipping used to uniquely identify a dog.

One-time disqualification Conformation: Permanent disqualification as a result of being disqualified by a judge one time. Reasons for one-time disqualification include:
  • Blindness
  • Deafness
  • Castration, spayed
  • Changed by artificial means
  • Attacks or vicious behavior
Dogs are no longer eligible to compete in shows, unless and until, the owner has, after application to the AKC, received official notification from the AKC that the dog's show eligibility has been reinstated.

Open Agility (OA) A suffix title conferred on dogs that have qualified the required number of times in the Open Agility class at AKC agility trials.

Open class A regular class for dogs six months of age or over.

Orange belton See Belton. Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Organized competition Competition governed by the rules of a club or society, such as the AKC, organized to promote the interests of purebred dogs.

Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) Organization, established in 1966, that developed and maintains a database of hip dysplasia in dogs. OFA has expanded their database to include elbow and eye evaluations.

Otter tail Thick at the root, round, and tapering, with the hair parted or divided at the underside.

Out at the elbows Elbows turning out from the body as opposed to being held close.

Out at the shoulders With shoulder blades loosely attached to the body, leaving the shoulders jutting out in relief and increasing the breadth of the front.

Outcrossing The mating of unrelated individuals of the same breed.

Oval chest Chest deeper than wide.

Overage dam A dam over 12 years of age on the date of mating.

Overage sire A sire over 12 years of age on the date of mating.

Overhang A heavy or pronounced brow.

Overreaching Fault in the trot caused by more angulation and drive from behind than in front so that the rear feet are forced to step to one side of the forefeet to avoid interfering or clipping.

Overshot The incisors of the upper jaw projecting beyond the incisors of the lower jaw, thus resulting in a space between the respective inner and outer surfaces.

Oversubscription When the number of applications to register puppies (completed Dog Registration Applications) from a specific litter exceed the total number of puppies by sex indicated on the Litter Application.

Ownership dispute A conflict involving one of more parties concerning the recorded ownership of a dog or litter.

Pace A lateral gait that tends to promote a rolling motion of the body. The left foreleg and left hind leg advance in unison, then the right foreleg and right hind leg.

Pack Several hounds kept together in one kennel. A mixed pack is made up of males and females.

Padding A compensating action to offset constant concussion when a straight front is subjected to overdrive from the rear; the front feet flip upward in a split-second delaying action to coordinate the stride of the forelegs with the longer stride from behind.

Paddling A gaiting fault, so named for its similarity to the swing and dip of a canoeists paddle. Pinching in at the elbows and shoulder joints causes the front legs to swing forward on a stiff outward arc. Also called tied at the elbows.

Pads Tough, shock-absorbing projections on the underside of the feet. Soles.

Paper foot A flat foot with thin pads.

Parent club The national organization designated by the AKC to represent a specific breed.

Parti-color Two or more definite, well-broken colors, one of which must be white. For example, Black Parti-color would be black and white. Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Pedigree The written record of a dog's genealogy of three generations or more.

Pelvis Hip bones, each consisting of three fused bones: an anterior ilium, a ventral pubis, and a posterior ischium; combined with the sacrum forming the pelvic girdle.

Pen breeding Unwitnessed mating that occurred because the sire and dam were confined to the same area.

Penalty fees Fees set by the Board of Directors for disciplinary action or the submission of late applications.

Penciling Black lines dividing the tan on the toes.

Pending discipline The period of time between the Management Discipline Committee's decision to prefer charges and the AKC Board of Directors actual suspension of an individual.

Pending hearing The period of time between an individual's request for a formal hearing and when the hearing is actually held. In this time period, the attorneys are setting the formal hearing in motion.

PennHIP A method, established in 1993, of evaluating hip dysplasia in dogs by calculating hip laxity; within-breed ratings are provided, permitting breeders to select dogs with the best (smallest laxity) hips for breeding future generations.

Pepper Used to describe several breeds, this color is a lowly saturated, medium brilliant black. When coupled with Salt, it describes the alternating black and white hairs of the Schnauzer breeds. Also referred to as Peppering. Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Permanent disqualification (1) The dog may no longer compete in AKC events. Permanent disqualification occurs if:
  • A dog is disqualified on three separate occasions by three different judges under the standard for its breed or when a male has been disqualified as not having two normal testicles (see three-time disqualification)
  • A dog, in the opinion of the judge, attacks any person(s) in the ring (see one-time disqualification).
(2) In performance events: When dogs are reported for having attacked another dog (two or three times, depending on the event).

Permanent post See permanent referral.

Permanent referral The act of placing a dog or litter on hold indefinitely based on the outcome of an AKC inquiry.

Pet shop A commercial organization that buys and sells dogs and is always listed as an intermediate in the chain of title for a dog.

Piebald Covered with patches of two colors, especially black and white. Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Pied Patches of white and another color. Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Pig eyes Eyes set too close.

Pig jaw See overshot.

Pigeon-breast A narrow chest with a protruding breastbone.

Pigeon-toed Toes pointing in toward the mid-line.

Pile Dense undercoat of soft hair.

Pincer bite See level bite.

Pinto Marked with white and some other color (usually patches of color on white). Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Planes See head planes.

Plume (1) A long fringe of hair on the tail. (2) Carrying the tail plume-like over the back.

Point The intense, stylized stance of the hunting dog, taken to indicate the presence and position of game.

Pointing breeds Term commonly applied to those sporting breeds that typically point birds.

Points (1) Color on face, ears, legs, and tail when correlated; usually white, black, or tan. (2) In events, credits toward championship status.

Poke To carry the neck stretched forward in an abnormally low, ungainly position, usually when moving.

Police dog Any dog trained for police work.

Pompon A rounded tuft of hair left on the end of the tail when the coat is clipped.

Posterior The portion of the dog carried toward the rear during normal locomotion.

Pounding Gaiting fault resultant of a dog's stride being shorter in the front than in the rear; forefeet strike the ground hard before the rear stride is expended.

Power of attorney When a recorded owner grants another individual the authorization to sign AKC documents on his/her behalf.

Power of attorney form A form completed by the recorded owner to grant another person authorization to sign AKC documents on his/her behalf.

Premium List Official announcement of the club's event sent to prospective participants. It contains the details of an upcoming event.

Pre-Trial tested (Herding) A suffix title conferred on dogs that have passed the required number of Pre-Trial tests at AKC herding tests.

Prick ear Ear carried erect, usually pointed at the tip.

Primary class The regular allowable class divisions: Puppy, 1218 month, Bred-by-exhibitor, Open, Novice, American bred, Amateur gun dog. Also called regular class.

Privileges The ability to use the services of the AKC, including the ability to register dogs and enter them in AKC events.

Processed application Any AKC document received that warrants a change on a dog or litter record.

Professional handler A person who exhibits dogs for a fee.

Professional trainer A person who trains hunting dogs and who handles dogs in field events.

Prong collar Collar used for training dogs. It has metal pieces on it that pinch a dog. It is against AKC rules to use this type of collar on the show grounds. Also called pinch collar.

Provisional Judge Title assigned to judges while they are being evaluated on their knowledge of designated breed(s) and/or level of obedience class in accordance with the current AKC judging approval system.

Pump handle Long tail, carried high.

Puppy A dog under 12 months of age.

Puppy class A regular class for dogs that are six months of age or over, but under twelve months, that are not champions. Puppy classes may be divided into the 6-9 month and 9-12 month classes.

Purebred A dog whose sire and dam belong to the same breed and who are themselves of unmixed descent since recognition of the breed.

Purebred Alternative Listing/Indefinite Listing Privilege (PAL/ILP) A number assigned to a dog by the AKC that allows a dog belonging to one of the AKC-recognized breeds (registerable breed or Miscellaneous breeds), that could not or was not registered (for whatever reason), to participate in some performance events. The dog must be spayed or neutered, and it cannot compete in conformation events.

Put down (1) To prepare a dog for the show ring. (2) A dog unplaced in competition. (3) To euthanatize a dog.

Qualifying score Obedience: A qualifying score is comprised of scores of more than 50% of the available points in each exercise and a final score of 170 or more points, earned in a single regular class at a licensed or member obedience trial or sanctioned match. Performance: A generic term meaning that a dog has met, at least, the minimum standard necessary for qualifying in a class or test level at lure coursing, herding, earthdog, or hunting tests.

Quality Refinement, fineness, a degree of excellence.

Racy Tall, of comparatively slight build.

Radius One of the two bones of the forearm.

Ragged Muscles appear ragged rather than smooth.

Rangy Tall, long in body, high on leg, light-framed; gangly.

Rat tail The root thick and covered with soft curls; at the tip devoid of hair, or having the appearance of being clipped.

Reach of front Length of forward stride taken by forelegs.

Rear pastern The metatarsus; the region of the hindquarters between the hock and the foot.

Record keeping requirements The AKC Board of Directors' requirement that everyone with AKC registered or registerable dogs maintain the required records except those individuals who own only one or two dogs and never breed or sell them.

Record reconstruction A service provided for those individuals whose records have been lost or destroyed. There is a $50 charge per hour of work involved. Records are not reconstructed over the telephone; a signed statement must be received from the person requesting the information.

Recorded owner (R/O) Person listed on AKC records as the owner of the dog.

Red sesame Red with a sparse black overlay (Shiba Inu). Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Referral A posting placed on the records for a dog or litter as a result of an inquiry. A referral may also be an internal coding for AKC informational purposes.

Register To record with the AKC a dog's breeding particulars.

Registered name The name, selected by the customer, assigned to a dog at the time the Dog Registration Application is processed.

Registration certificate The document issued by the AKC to the owner of a dog when it is individually registered or transferred to a new owner.

Registration number Unique number assigned to a dog when it is individually registered. Under the current registration system, this number is the litter number plus a slash mark (/) and a two-digit number.

Registries Organizations that keep official records on specific subjects. With respect to dogs, there are registries of purebred dogs for tracking lineage and health registries for rating certain health conditions (e.g., Orthopedic Foundation for Animals, etc.).

Regular class See Primary class.

Regulation A principle rule or law designed to govern or control.

Reinspection An inspection conducted at the written request of the customer to determine whether or not he/she has been able to bring records and/or identification into compliance with the AKC's rules and regulations. (A prior inspection found the customer in noncompliance.)

Reinstate To restore AKC privileges to an individual or dog as a result of compliance with AKC rules and regulations or completion of a suspension period.

Rejection Any AKC document received that is incomplete or not properly constructed. A rejection notice is issued, explaining the discrepancy and asking for proper completion.

Reprimand A severe formal or official warning issued to those individuals not in compliance with AKC rules.

Required records Ownership, breeding, or litter records that individuals are required to keep as stated in AKC Regulations for Record Keeping and Identification of Dogs.

Reserve Winners The award given to the second place dog or bitch in the Winners class.

Retrieve Performance: A hunting term. The act of bringing game back to the handler. Obedience: An exercise in some obedience classes.

Retrieving breeds Term commonly applied to those sporting breeds that typically return birds to hand from water or over land.

Rib cage The collection of paired ribs, cartilage, sternum, and associated tissue that define the thoracic region.

Ribbed up Long ribs that angle back from the spinal column. A reference to a long rib cage.

Ring tail Carried up and around almost in a circle.

Ringer A substitute for; a dog closely resembling another dog.

Roach back A convex curvature of the back involving thoracic and lumbar regions.

Roan Frequently a blue-gray or iron-gray, this color is the fine mixing of colored hairs with white hairs. For example, a blue roan is a coat comprised of black and white hairs. (Note: This is the same definition as the Belton color in English Setters.) Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Rocking horse Both front and rear legs extended out from the body as on an old-fashioned rocking horse.

Rolling gait Swaying, ambling action of the hindquarters when moving.

Roman nose A nose whose bridge is so comparatively high as to form a slightly convex line from forehead to nose tip. Ram's nose.

Rose ear A small drop ear that folds over and back so as to reveal the burr.

Rounding Cutting or trimming the ends of the ear leather.

Ruby A rich, mahogany red (English Toy Spaniel). Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Rudder The tail or stern.

Ruff Thick, longer hair growing around the neck.

Rule book(s) Both the Rules Applying to Registration & Discipline and the Rules Applying to Dog Shows as well as various sets of obedience and field trial rules. There are also a number of rule books relating to specific events.

Rust Used to describe several breeds, this color is a medium-brilliant reddish brown. Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Saber tail Carried in a semicircle.

Sable Coat color produced by black-tipped hairs on a background of silver, gold, gray, fawn, or brown.

Sacrum The region of the vertebral column that consists of three fused vertebrae that articulate the pelvic girdle.

Saddle Markings in the shape of a saddle over the back. Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Saddle back Overlong back, with a dip behind the withers.

Sanctioned club Club holding Plan B and Plan A level matches for the purpose of qualifying to hold licensed events.

Sandy Used to describe several breeds, this color is a dull, yellowish gray of medium saturation. Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Scent The odor left by an animal or bird on the trail (ground-scent) or wafted through the air (air-borne scent).

Scissors bite A bite in which the outer side of the lower incisors touches the inner side of the upper incisors.

Screw tail A naturally short tail twisted in more or less spiral formation.

Seal Used to describe Boston Terriers, this color appears black except that it has a red cast when viewed in the sun or bright light. Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Second thigh That part of the hindquarters from the stifle to the hock, corresponding to the human shin and calf. Lower thigh, including the tibia and fibula.

Secondary class A division of the regular or primary class. The division can be breed-specific, having to do with color, height, weight, or coat (e.g., Open-Fawn), or event-specific (e.g., Novice A or B in obedience events). Best of Breed or Best of Variety are not divided into secondary classes. Secondary classes are offered at the discretion of the Event Committee of the club holding the event.

Sedge Used to describe Chesapeake Bay Retrievers, this color is similar to deadgrass, but it is more accurately a lightening of the chocolate hue. Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Seeing Eye Dog A dog trained as a guide dog for the blind.

Self color One color or whole color except for lighter shadings. Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Semi-prick ears Ears carried erect with just the tips leaning forward.

Senior Earthdog (SE) A suffix title conferred on dogs that have qualified the required number of times in the Senior class at AKC earthdog tests.

Senior Hunter (SH) A suffix title conferred on dogs that have qualified the required number of times in Senior tests at hunting tests for pointing breeds, retrievers, and spaniels.

Senior Grand Nite Champion (SGNC) A prefix title conferred on dogs that have earned the Grand Nite Champion and have won the required number of first placements in AKC Coonhound night hunts.

Septum The line extending vertically between the nostrils.

Set up Posed as to make the most of the dog's appearance for the show ring.

Shelly A shallow, narrow body, lacking the correct amount of bone.

Short back See close coupled.

Show cause hearing A proceeding similar to a trial board hearing, with one person presiding, to determine disciplinary action for an individual.

Show Chairman See Event Chairman.

Show hours See event hours.

Show Secretary See Event Secretary.

Sickle hocked Inability to straighten the hock joint on the back reach of the hind leg.

Sighthound A hound that runs or courses game by sight rather than scent.

Signature Authorization form A form completed by pet shops and brokers to indicate those approved to sign AKC applications for the firm. Also called R-77, R-92, and C-21.

Single tracking All footprints falling on a single line of travel. When a dog breaks into a trot, his body is supported by only two legs at a time, which move as alternating diagonal pairs. To achieve balance, his legs angle inward toward a center line beneath his body, and the greater the speed, the closer they come to tracking on a single line.

Sire The male parent.

Skeleton Descriptively divided into axial (skull, vertebrae column, chest) and appendicular (forequarters, hindquarters) portions.

Skully Thick and course through the skull.

Slab sided Flat ribs with too little spring from the spinal column.

Sled dogs Dogs worked, usually in teams, to pull sleds.

Slew feet Feet turned out.

Sloping shoulder The shoulder blade set obliquely or laid back.

Smooth coat Short hair, close lying.

Snatching hocks A gait fault indicated by a quick outward snatching of the hock as it passes the supporting leg and twists the rear pastern far in beneath the body. The action causes noticeable rocking in the rear quarters.

Snipy A pointed, weak muzzle, lacking breadth and depth.

Snow nose Nose normally solid black, but acquires pink streak in winter. Also called winter nose.

Soundness The state of mental and physical health when all organs and faculties are complete and functioning normally, each in its rightful relation to the other.

Spay To remove a bitch's ovaries to prevent conception.

Speak To bark.

Special attraction An event or class, restricted to purebred dogs, that is not normally offered at an AKC all-breed or specialty event. Special permission may be granted to open the event to breeds not recognized by the AKC or to a well-known dog with a celebrity. Examples of Special attractions are:
  • Agility team demonstrations
  • Best puppy in show
  • Herding demonstrations
  • Weight pull
  • Eye clinics
  • Tattoo clinics
Permission for all special attractions must be requested by the club before listing them in their Premium List.

Special Registry Services A department that specializes in handling anything outside the normal domestic registration; e.g., Foreign Applications, Open Registry, and Special Litters.

Special Services Department formed at the AKC to handle questions and problems that come from the show group of customers of the AKC. Designed to offer a premium level of service to those significantly involved in the sport.

Specialty club A club formed to serve and responsibly promote the interests of a single breed.

Specialty show Conformation show in which only dogs of an individual breed or group of breeds are eligible to enter.

Spectacles Shadings or dark markings over or around the eyes or from eyes to ears.

Speedy discipline A Board action, whereby, when an individual does not contest his/her suspension, he/she is suspended without benefit of trial.

Spike tail Straight, short tail that tapers rapidly along its length.

Splashed Irregularly patched, color on white or white on color.

Splayfoot A flat foot with toes spreading. Open foot, open-toed.

Sporting group Group of dogs who were originally bred to assist the hunter to hunt game birds, both on land and in the water.

Spread Width between the forelegs when accentuated.

Spread hocks Hocks pointing outward.

Spring See flush.

Spring of ribs Curvature of ribs for heart and lung capacity.

Square body A dog whose measurements from withers to ground equals that from forechest to rump.

Squirrel tail Carried up and curving more or less forward.

Stack (setup, pose) The posing of a dog in a natural position.

Stag red Deep red (almost brown) with intermingling of black hairs (Miniature Pinscher). Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Stake Designation of a class; used in field trial competition.

Stance Manner of standing.

Standard See breed standard.

Stand away coat See standoff coat.

Standoff coat A long or heavy coat that stands off from the body. Also called stand away coat.

Staring coat The hair dry, harsh, and sometimes curling at the tips.

Statement of Legal Rights A form to be completed by a person authorized to sign for a decedent and used in lieu of a court document. The form must be notarized.

Station Comparative height from the ground, as high-stationed, low stationed.

Steep Used to denote incorrect angles of articulation. For example, a steep front describes a more upright shoulder placement than is preferred.

Stern Tail.

Sternum Breastbone.

Steward Person who is responsible for the smooth running of a specific ring; for example, assembling the classes, distributing armbands, etc., thereby enabling the judge to concentrate on judging the dogs.

Stifle The joint of the hind leg between the thigh and the second thigh. The dog's knee.

Stilted The choppy, up-and-down gait of the straight-hocked dog.

Stop The step up from muzzle to back skull; indentation between the eyes where the nasal bones and cranium meet.

Straight in pastern Little or no bend at the wrist.

Straight shoulders. The shoulder blades rather straight up and down, as opposed to sloping or well laid back.

Straight-hocked Lacking appreciable angulation at the hock joints.

Stud Book Monthly publication of the AKC. A listing of dogs that have sired or produced a litter that has been registered with the AKC. With this information, a person can use Stud Book volumes to trace a dog's lineage and to produce pedigrees.

Stud dog A male dog used for breeding purposes.

Stud dog class Class where a stud dog is shown and judged with at least two of his offspring. Judging is based on the quality of the get, not the sire. (Club may permit more offspring to be shown. The upper limit must be stated in the Premium List.)

Stud dog power of attorney form A completed form (used primarily by handlers) that authorizes the AKC to accept the signature of someone other than the actual owner of the stud dog named. This form can be used only on litter applications for litters sired by that dog. The form is valid for one year; a new form must be filed to extend authorization.

Stud fee Payment made for the services of a stud dog.

Subcommittee of the Board A subdivision consisting of three members of the Board, which is organized for the specific purpose of hearing privileges (AKC privileges) appeals.

Substance Bone.

Substitution of a dog Entering a specific dog in an AKC event and physically using a different dog at the event.

Superciliary arches The ridge, projection, or prominence of the frontal bones of the skull over the eyes; the brow; supraorbital ridges.

Superintendent An individual licensed by the AKC and hired by a club to be responsible for the actual mechanics of holding an event.

Supplemental Transfer Statement The form that must be completed by the current owner and the new owner when a registered or registerable dog changes hands more than once before being transferred or registered. This form is attached to the original registration certificate or application. Also called the gray form.

Suspension The inability to use any of the facilities or privileges of the AKC.

Suspension trot See flying trot.

Swayback Concave curvature of the vertebrae column between the withers and the hipbones.

Sweepstakes A non-regular competition offered in conjunction with regular classes at specialty shows for puppies or veterans. Class divisions, requirements, and conditions are established by the club. No championship points are awarded.

Symmetry Pleasing balance between all parts of the dog.

Tail set How the base of the tail is set on the rump.

Tattoo A method of on-dog identification.

Tawny Used, along with white, to describe Ibizian Hounds, this color is the color of lions (sandy yellow). Also referred to as Lion Tawny. Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Team Usually, four dogs exhibited by one handler.

Terrier front Straight front as found on fox terriers.

Terrier group A group of dogs used originally for hunting vermin.

Testicles The male gonads, which produce spermatoza. AKC regulations specify that a male that does not have two normal testicles normally located in the scrotum may not compete at any show and will be disqualified, except that a castrated male may be entered in obedience trials, tracking tests, field trials (except beagles), and as a stud dog in a stud dog class.

Thigh The hindquarter from hip to stifle.

Thoracic vertebrae The thirteen vertebrae of the chest with which thirteen pairs of ribs articulate.

Three-time disqualification Conformation: Permanent disqualification as a result of being disqualified for the same reason on three separate occasions by three different judges. Reasons for disqualification include:
  • Undescended testicles
  • Testicles not present
  • Height not as specified in the breed standard
  • Weight not as specified in the breed standard
  • Color not as specified in the breed standard

Three-Time Win trophy A trophy awarded to an owner and/or breeder that has won an award three times. Please refer to the Rules Applying to Dog Shows Chapter 5 for the classes and awards eligible for three-time win trophies.

Throatiness An excess of loose skin under the throat.

Thumb marks Black spots on the region of the pastern.

Tibia One of the two bones of the leg (i.e., the lower thigh, second thigh, or lower leg).

Ticked Small, isolated areas (smaller than spots) of black or colored hairs on a white background. Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Tied at the elbows See paddling.

Title An award conferred on a dog for completing specific qualifications earned at AKC events or AKC-sponsored activities. More information on AKC titles and abbreviations.

Tongue The barking or baying of hounds on the trail, as to give tongue, to open or speak.

Topknot A tuft of longer hair on top of the head.

Topline The dog's outline from just behind the withers to the tail set.

Toy group Group of dogs bred to be companions or lap dogs.

Tracking Dog (TD) A title awarded to a dog that has been recorded a Tracking Dog as a result of having passed an AKC licensed or member tracking test. The title may be combined with the UD (Utility Dog) title and shown as UDT.

Tracking Dog Excellent (TDX) A title awarded to a dog that has been recorded a Tracking Dog Excellent as a result of having passed an AKC licensed or member tracking test. The title may be combined with the UDT title and shown as UDTX.

Trail To hunt by following ground scent.

Training collar A collar made of nylon, leather, or chain, fitted to the dog's neck in such a manner that the degree of tension exerted by the hand tightens or loosens it. Also called choke collar or slip collar.

Trial Board Three independent individuals, appointed by the AKC Board of Directors, who conduct a hearing on specific charges to determine whether or not an individual should be suspended.

Triangular eye The eye set in surrounding tissue of triangular shape; three-cornered eye.

Tricolor Three colors in the coat: white, black, and tan (Prince Charles in English Toy Spaniel breed). Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Trim To groom the coat by plucking or clipping.

Triple Champion (TC) A dog that has won conformation show, field trial, and obedience trial championships.

Trot A rhythmic two-beat diagonal gait in which the feet at diagonal opposite ends of the body strike the ground together; i.e., right hind with left front and left hind with right front.

Trousers Longish hair at the back of both upper and lower thighs.

Trumpet The slight depression or hollow on either side of the skull just behind the orbit or eye socket; the region comparable with the temple in man.

Truncated Cut off.

Tuck-up Characterized by markedly shallower body depth at the loin. Small-waisted.

Tulip ear An ear carried erect with edges curving in and forward.

Turn-up An up-tilted foreface.

Twelve-to-eighteen month class A regular class for dogs that are 12 months of age and over, but under 18 months, that are not champions.

Twisting hocks A gaiting fault in which the hock joints twist both ways as they flex or bear weight. Also called rubber hocks.

Type Sum of qualities that distinguish dogs of one breed (breed type) or dogs from one kennel (kennel type) from others.

Ulna One of the two bones of the forearm.

Unbenched Show Conformation show where dogs are not required to be on specific benches for viewing.

Underage dam Dam under eight months of age at the time of mating.

Underage sire Sire under eight months of age at the time of mating.

Undercoat Dense, soft, short coat concealed by a longer top coat.

Underline The combined contours of the brisket and the abdominal floor.

Undershot The front teeth (incisors) of the lower jaw overlapping or projecting beyond the front teeth of the upper jaw when the mouth is closed.

Unentered dog Term used to describe dogs that are the show grounds but are not entered at the show.

Unilateral cryptorchid See cryptorchid.

Unsound A dog incapable of performing the functions for which it was bred.

Upper arm The humerus or bone of the foreleg, between the shoulder blade and the forearm and associated tissues.

Utility Dog (UD) A title awarded to a dog that has been recorded a Utility Dog by the AKC as a result of having won certain minimum scores in Utility classes at a specified number of AKC licensed or member obedience trials. This title may be combined with the TD or TDX title and shown as UDT or UDTX, respectively.

Utility Dog Excellent (UDX) A title awarded to a dog that has been recorded a Utility Dog Excellent by the AKC as a result of having won certain minimum scores in Utility B and Open B classes at a specified number of AKC licensed or member club Obedience Trials. This title may be combined with TD, TDX, or VST titles and shown as UDXTD, UDXTDX, or UDXVST.

Utility Dog Excellent Tracking Dog (UDXTD) A title awarded to a dog that has been recorded a Utility Dog Excellent by the AKC as a result of having won certain minimum scores in Utility B and Open B classes at a specified number of AKC licensed or member club Obedience Trials and has been certified by two judges to have passed a licensed or member club Tracking Test.

Utility Dog Excellent Tracking Dog Excellent (UDXTDX) A title awarded to a dog that has been recorded a Utility Dog Excellent by the AKC as a result of having won certain minimum scores in Utility B and Open B classes at a specified number of AKC licensed or member club Obedience Trials and has been certified by two judges to have passed a licensed or member club Tracking Dog Excellent Test.

Utility Dog Excellent Variable Surface Tracking (UDXVST) A title awarded to a dog that has been recorded a Utility Dog Excellent by the AKC as a result of having won certain minimum scores in Utility B and Open B classes at a specified number of licensed or member club Obedience Trials and has been certified by both judges to have passed a licensed or member club Variable Surface Tracking Test.

Utility Dog Tracking Dog (UDTD) (UDT) A title awarded to a dog that has been recorded a Utility Dog and a Tracking Dog by the AKC as a result of having won certain minimum scores in Utility classes at a specified number of AKC licensed or member club Obedience Trials and has been certified by two judges to have passed a licensed or member club Tracking Test.

Utility Dog Tracking Dog Excellent (UDTDX) A title awarded to a dog that has been recorded a Utility Dog and a Tracking Dog Excellent by the AKC as a result of having won certain minimum scores in Utility classes at a specified number of AKC licensed or member club Obedience Trials and has been certified by two judges to have passed a licensed or member club Tracking Dog Excellent Test.

Utility Dog Variable Surface Tracking (UDVST) A title awarded to a dog that has been recorded a Utility Dog by the AKC as a result of having won certain minimum scores in Utility classes at a specified number of licensed or member club Obedience Trials and has been certified by both judges to have passed a licensed or member club Variable Surface Tracking Test.

Variety A division of a breed approved by the AKC. There are nine breeds that are divided into varieties: Cockers, Beagles, Collies, Dachshunds, Bull Terriers, Manchester Terriers, Chihuahuas, English Toy Spaniels, and Poodles.

Varminty A keen, very bright or piercing expression.

Veil The portion of the dog's forelock hanging straight down over the eyes or partially covering them.

Vent The anal opening.

Vertebral column The bones of the central axis of the dog posterior to the skull, including cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and caudal vertebrae.

Veterans class Class for dogs older than a minimum age requirement. Each club establishes its own age requirements for this class.

Walk Gaiting pattern in which three legs are in support of the body at all times, each foot lifting from the ground one at a time in regular sequence.

Walleye An eye with a whitish iris; a blue eye, fisheye, pearl eye.

Warning letter One of four different letters that advise an individual of the extent of their noncompliance with AKC Rules and Regulations for record keeping and identification.

Webbed Connected by a membrane.

Webbed toes Toes connected by a skin membrane; important for water-retrieving dogs, providing help in swimming.

Weedy An insufficient amount of bone; light boned.

Well let down Having short hocks; refers to short metatarsals.

Wet neck Loose or superfluous skin; with dewlap.

Wheaten Pale yellow or fawn color. The color of wheat. Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Wheel back A marked arch of the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae.

Whelp date The date of birth of a litter.

Whelping The act of birthing puppies.

Whip tail Carried out stiffly straight and pointed.

Whiskers Vibrissae or sensory organs (hairs) on the sides of the muzzle.

Whitelies Body color white with red or dark markings. Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Wicket Device used to measure the height of a dog at the withers.

Wild boar Usually used to describe Dachshunds, this color is dull gray hairs intermingled with black hairs. Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Wind To catch the scent of game.

Winging A gaiting fault where one or both front feet twist outward as the limbs swing forward.

Winners An award given at dog shows to the best dog (Winners Dog) and best bitch (Winners Bitch) competing in regular classes.

Winners class A regular class divided by sex, with each division open to dogs of the same sex that have won first prizes in either the Puppy, Twelve-to-Eighteen month, Novice, Bred-by-Exhibitor, American-Bred or Open classes.

Winter nose See snownose.

Wirehair A coat of hard, crisp, wiry texture.

Withers Highest point of a dog's shoulders.

Withholding Decision of a judge not to give an award or placement in a class at any point in the judging process.

Wolf sable Used to describe Pomeranians. Silver or gray with black tips (no tan, white, or cream anywhere). Color definitions may vary by breed. Always check the breed standard for the definitive color description.

Working group Group of dogs used to pull carts, guard property, and for search and rescue.

Wrinkle Loose, folding skin on forehead and foreface.

Wry mouth Asymmetrical alignment of upper and lower jaws; cross bite.

Xiphoid process Cartilage process of the sternum.

Zygomatic arch A bony ridge extending posteriorly (and laterally) from beneath the eye orbit.