Rottweiler sitting in three-quarter view.
Rottweiler

What's a dog breed?

People have been breeding dogs since prehistoric times. The earliest dog breeders used wolves to create domestic dogs. From the beginning, humans purposefully bred dogs to perform various tasks. Hunting, guarding, and herding are thought to be among the earliest job…

What's a dog breed?

People have been breeding dogs since prehistoric times. The earliest dog breeders used wolves to create domestic dogs. From the beginning, humans purposefully bred dogs to perform various tasks. Hunting, guarding, and herding are thought to be among the earliest jobs eagerly performed by the animal destined to be called “man’s best friend.”

For thousands of years, humans bred dogs toward the physical and mental traits best suited for the work expected of them. The sleek Greyhound types bred to chase fleet-footed prey, and the huge mastiff types used as guard dogs and warriors, are two ancient examples of dogs bred for specific jobs.

As humans became more sophisticated, so did their dogs. Eventually, there emerged specific breeds of dogs, custom-bred to suit the breeders’ local needs and circumstances. The Greyhound, for instance, was the foundation type for the immense Irish Wolfhound and the dainty Italian Greyhound. All three have a distinct family resemblance, but you’d never mistake one for another.

So, then, when is a breed a breed and not just a kind or type of dog? The simplest way to define a breed is to say it always “breeds true.” That is, breeding a purebred Irish Setter to another purebred Irish Setter will always produce dogs instantly recognizable as Irish Setters.

Each breed’s ideal physical traits, movement, and temperament are set down in a written document called a “breed standard.” For example, the breed standard sets forth the traits that make a Cocker Spaniel a Cocker Spaniel and not a Springer Spaniel.

The AKC standard for each breed originates with a “parent club,” the AKC-recognized national club devoted to a particular breed. Once approved by the AKC, a standard becomes both the breeder’s “blueprint” and the instrument used by dog show judges to evaluate a breeder’s work.

There are over 340 dog breeds known throughout the world. The American Kennel Club recognizes 200 breeds.

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Kerry Blue Terrier

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Lagotto Romagnolo

Lagotto Romagnolo

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Löwchen

Löwchen

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Maltese

Maltese

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Miniature Schnauzer

Miniature Schnauzer

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Peruvian Inca Orchid

Peruvian Inca Orchid

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Poodle (Miniature)

Poodle (Miniature)

Whether Standard, Miniature, or Toy, and either black, white, or apricot, the Poodle stands proudly…

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Poodle (Standard)

Poodle (Standard)

Whether Standard, Miniature, or Toy, and either black, white, or apricot, the Poodle stands proudly…

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Poodle (Toy)

Poodle (Toy)

Despite his diminutive size, the Toy Poodle stands proudly among dogdom's true aristocrats. Beneath…

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Portuguese Water Dog

Portuguese Water Dog

The bright and biddable Portuguese Water Dog was bred to be an all-around fisherman's helper. The…

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Russian Tsvetnaya Bolonka

Russian Tsvetnaya Bolonka

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Soft Coated Wheaten Terrier

Soft Coated Wheaten Terrier

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