Pharaoh Hound sitting in three-quarter view facing forward
Pharaoh Hound

What's a dog breed?

People have been breeding dogs since prehistoric times. The earliest dog breeders used wolves to create domestic dogs. From the beginning, humans purposefully bred dogs to perform various tasks. Hunting, guarding, and herding are thought to be among the earliest job…

What's a dog breed?

People have been breeding dogs since prehistoric times. The earliest dog breeders used wolves to create domestic dogs. From the beginning, humans purposefully bred dogs to perform various tasks. Hunting, guarding, and herding are thought to be among the earliest jobs eagerly performed by the animal destined to be called “man’s best friend.”

For thousands of years, humans bred dogs toward the physical and mental traits best suited for the work expected of them. The sleek Greyhound types bred to chase fleet-footed prey, and the huge mastiff types used as guard dogs and warriors, are two ancient examples of dogs bred for specific jobs.

As humans became more sophisticated, so did their dogs. Eventually, there emerged specific breeds of dogs, custom-bred to suit the breeders’ local needs and circumstances. The Greyhound, for instance, was the foundation type for the immense Irish Wolfhound and the dainty Italian Greyhound. All three have a distinct family resemblance, but you’d never mistake one for another.

So, then, when is a breed a breed and not just a kind or type of dog? The simplest way to define a breed is to say it always “breeds true.” That is, breeding a purebred Irish Setter to another purebred Irish Setter will always produce dogs instantly recognizable as Irish Setters.

Each breed’s ideal physical traits, movement, and temperament are set down in a written document called a “breed standard.” For example, the breed standard sets forth the traits that make a Cocker Spaniel a Cocker Spaniel and not a Springer Spaniel.

The AKC standard for each breed originates with a “parent club,” the AKC-recognized national club devoted to a particular breed. Once approved by the AKC, a standard becomes both the breeder’s “blueprint” and the instrument used by dog show judges to evaluate a breeder’s work.

There are over 340 dog breeds known throughout the world. The American Kennel Club recognizes 192 breeds.

Whippet

Whippet

The sleek, sweet-faced Whippet, the “Poor Man’s Racehorse,” is lightning quick. He is a…

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Wire Fox Terrier

Wire Fox Terrier

The Wire Fox Terrier breed standard says they should be “on the tip-toe of expectation at the…

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Wirehaired Pointing Griffon

Wirehaired Pointing Griffon

The hardworking Wirehaired Pointing Griffon, renowned as the “supreme gundog,” is known for the…

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Wirehaired Vizsla

Wirehaired Vizsla

The Wirehaired Vizsla is an exuberant hunter on land or lake, whose dense, wiry coat distinguishe…

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Working Kelpie

Working Kelpie

The Working Kelpie is extremely alert, eager and highly intelligent. He possesses an ope…

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Xoloitzcuintli

Xoloitzcuintli

The 3,000-year-old Xoloitzcuintli (pronounced "show-low-eats-QUEENT-lee"), the ancient Aztec dog of…

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Yakutian Laika

Yakutian Laika

Yakutian Laikas are used for herding, pulling sleds and hunting. They were developed in ancie…

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Yorkshire Terrier

Yorkshire Terrier

Beneath the dainty, glossy, floor-length coat of a Yorkshire Terrier beats the heart of a feisty…

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