Pharaoh Hound sitting in three-quarter view facing forward
Pharaoh Hound

What's a dog breed?

People have been breeding dogs since prehistoric times. The earliest dog breeders used wolves to create domestic dogs. From the beginning, humans purposefully bred dogs to perform various tasks. Hunting, guarding, and herding are thought to be among the earliest job…

What's a dog breed?

People have been breeding dogs since prehistoric times. The earliest dog breeders used wolves to create domestic dogs. From the beginning, humans purposefully bred dogs to perform various tasks. Hunting, guarding, and herding are thought to be among the earliest jobs eagerly performed by the animal destined to be called “man’s best friend.”

For thousands of years, humans bred dogs toward the physical and mental traits best suited for the work expected of them. The sleek Greyhound types bred to chase fleet-footed prey, and the huge mastiff types used as guard dogs and warriors, are two ancient examples of dogs bred for specific jobs.

As humans became more sophisticated, so did their dogs. Eventually, there emerged specific breeds of dogs, custom-bred to suit the breeders’ local needs and circumstances. The Greyhound, for instance, was the foundation type for the immense Irish Wolfhound and the dainty Italian Greyhound. All three have a distinct family resemblance, but you’d never mistake one for another.

So, then, when is a breed a breed and not just a kind or type of dog? The simplest way to define a breed is to say it always “breeds true.” That is, breeding a purebred Irish Setter to another purebred Irish Setter will always produce dogs instantly recognizable as Irish Setters.

Each breed’s ideal physical traits, movement, and temperament are set down in a written document called a “breed standard.” For example, the breed standard sets forth the traits that make a Cocker Spaniel a Cocker Spaniel and not a Springer Spaniel.

The AKC standard for each breed originates with a “parent club,” the AKC-recognized national club devoted to a particular breed. Once approved by the AKC, a standard becomes both the breeder’s “blueprint” and the instrument used by dog show judges to evaluate a breeder’s work.

There are over 340 dog breeds known throughout the world. The American Kennel Club recognizes 192 breeds.

French Bulldog

French Bulldog

The one-of-a-kind French Bulldog, with his large bat ears and even disposition, is one of the…

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French Spaniel

French Spaniel

The French Spaniel is balanced, frank, gentle, calm and docile. He is an enthusiastic…

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German Longhaired Pointer

German Longhaired Pointer

A good way to describe the German Longhaired Pointer is that, in appearance, it’s Continental…

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German Pinscher

German Pinscher

The sleek, no-frills German Pinscher is among Germany’s oldest breeds and the prototype of othe…

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German Shepherd Dog

German Shepherd Dog

Generally considered dogkind’s finest all-purpose worker, the German Shepherd Dog is a large…

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German Shorthaired Pointer

German Shorthaired Pointer

The versatile, medium-sized German Shorthaired Pointer is an enthusiastic gundog of all trades who…

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German Spitz

German Spitz

The German Spitz is always attentive, lively and exceptionally devoted to his owner. He is very…

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German Wirehaired Pointer

German Wirehaired Pointer

With his sporty weatherproof coat and can-do attitude, the noble German Wirehaired Pointer is a…

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Giant Schnauzer

Giant Schnauzer

The Giant Schnauzer is a larger and more powerful version of the Standard Schnauzer, and he should…

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Glen of Imaal Terrier

Glen of Imaal Terrier

Gentler, less excitable than most terriers, but still bold and spirited, the double-coated Glen of…

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Golden Retriever

Golden Retriever

The Golden Retriever, an exuberant Scottish gundog of great beauty, stands among America’s mo…

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Gordon Setter

Gordon Setter

The Gordon Setter, the black avenger of the Highlands, is a substantial bird dog named for a…

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