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  • Temperament: Loyal, Smart, Charming
  • Height: 8-11 inches
  • Weight: Up to 6.5 pounds
  • Life Expectancy: 12-14+ years
  • Group: Miscellaneous Class

    The AKC has grouped all of the breeds that it registers into seven categories, or groups, roughly based on function and heritage. Breeds are grouped together because they share traits of form and function or a common heritage.

Breed Standard
Russian Toy standing facing left, head turned forward.
Russian Toy head in three-quarter view outdoors.
Russian Toy sitting facing forward.
Russian Toy sitting facing left, head turned forward.
Russian Toy standing outdoors facing left.
Russian Toy laying down facing left, head turned forward.
Russian Toy head in three-quarter view.
Russian Toy standing outdoors facing right.
Two Russian Toys standing on a tree stump outdoors.

About the Russian Toy

The Russian Toy is a toy breed with a lineage that dates back to the Russian aristocracy. In general, he is a good-natured imp that loves to run and play. They will dash through the house or yard chasing toys as long as you can keep up, while many others are willing to do nothing more than lounge in your lap all day long, content in knowing that they are the prize jewel in your home. They thrive on human companionship and will let you know if they are feeling neglected. Their coat is either semi-long or smooth. The longhaired variety carries a nice ruff on the chest and unique feathering on the extremities, tail and ears. Long-coated Russian Toys will not have an adult coat until it is more than a year old and full fringing not until three years of age. The smooth-coated variety is sleek and smooth to the touch. There is also a slight attitude difference between the two varieties. Smooth Coats tend to be a little more terrier-like than Long Coats. However, both share a larger-than-life personality.



National Breed Clubs and Rescue

Want to connect with other people who love the same breed as much as you do? We have plenty of opportunities to get involved in your local community thanks to AKC Breed Clubs located in every state and more than 450 AKC Rescue Network groups across the country. Since July 2016, The Russian Toy Club of America has served as the AKC Parent Club to represent the Russian Toy.
Russian Toy puppy

Find a Puppy: Russian Toy

AKC Marketplace | PuppyFinder

AKC Marketplace is the only site to exclusively list 100% AKC puppies from AKC-Registered litters and the breeders who have cared for and raised these puppies are required to follow rules and regulations established by the AKC.



The Russian Toy should do well on a high-quality dog food, whether commercially manufactured  (with very small kibble) or home-prepared with your veterinarian’s supervision and approval. Any diet should be appropriate to the dog’s age (puppy, adult, or senior). Some dogs are prone to getting overweight, so watch your dog’s calorie consumption and weight level. Treats can be an important aid in training, but giving too many can cause obesity. Learn about which human foods are safe for dogs, and which are not. Check with your vet if you have any concerns about your dog’s weight or diet. Clean, fresh water should be available at all times.


The longhaired variety requires more grooming than the smooth-coated variety for obvious reasons. The long coat has body hair from 1-3 inches long. Their ears are covered with thick, long hair forming a fringe, and there are distinct feathers on the rear side of his limbs. The longhaired variety should be brushed two to three times per week and fringes should be kept free of debris. Monthly baths with high-quality shampoo and conditioner are usually enough to keep the coat healthy.

The smooth-coated Russian Toy has short, close-lying, shiny hair without an undercoat or fringes. Regular weekly brushing with a soft brush along with occasional baths is recommended to keep the smooth coat free of dead hair and flaky skin. A daily shammy wipe-down adds luster to the coat, too.

Grooming Frequency

Occasional Bath/Brush
Weekly Brushing




The Russian Toy is considered to have a moderately high energy. They need regular exercise, but because of their small size, a regular yard or long run is usually sufficient. They love going for walks with their humans and love to run and play until they collapse in your lap for a long snuggle.

Because small dogs have more fragile necks and tracheas than large dogs, it is recommended that a leash be attached to a harness instead of a collar when walking your Russian Toy. It is also recommended that you do not leave a collar or harness on your Russian while in your home. Many times a collar or harness can get caught on things around the house and injure your little imp.

Energy Level

Couch Potato
Needs Lots of Activity
Regular Exercise


Generally, Russian Toys are agreeable and eager to please, making them very trainable. However, they are still terriers at heart, can be stubborn, and will try to be the boss. Their clown-like antics and outgoing friendly personality make them great candidates for agility and trick-dog competition.

The RTCA, the breed’s AKC parent club, highly recommends early socialization of your puppy. Many all-breed kennel clubs, community centers, and veterinarians offer puppy kindergarten classes as well as many levels of obedience training.


May be Stubborn
Eager to Please




The Russian Toy is an overall healthy breed; like many toy breeds, their primary health concern is their teeth. Most puppies do not lose all of their deciduous (puppy) teeth and require surgical removal of the remaining deciduous teeth by nine months of age. Periodontal disease, the build-up of tooth tartar, can begin by one year of age. Regular dental care such as teeth brushing can reduce plaque and prevent surgical dental cleaning or teeth removal.

Responsible breeders screen their stock for health conditions such as progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) and patellar luxation, and owners should be aware of the risk for eye injuries, such as ulcers.


Recommended Health Tests From Parent Club:

  • Patella Evaluation
  • Ophthalmologist Evaluation
  • Periodontal Disease Evaluation
Russian Toy sitting outdoors surrounded by green foliage.
Russian Toy in a basket.
Russian Toy
Russian Toy


The history of the Russian Toy began with English stock and dates back as early as the 18th century when the English Toy Terrier arrived in Russia. Evidence of this can be seen at the Zoological Museum in St. Petersburg, where a preserved specimen of a small black and tan terrier from 1716-1725, stands on exhibit. The specimen stands approximately 14 inches at the withers with the inscription: “Dog of the sleek haired terrier breed named Lisetta, belonged personally to Peter the Great.”

During the 18th century in Russia, it became popular to import English Toy Terriers. Socialites adored these dogs due to their small size and lively temperament. It became quite stylish to appear in public with a well-behaved small terrier at social events and the opera. The Toy Terrier became a kind of “living accessory” to those of the upper class.

At the beginning of the 20th century, the numbers of these toy dogs had grown and the breed was no longer a rarity, but had become a symbol of prestige. However, the breed was no longer referred to as the English Toy Terrier. In Russia, it was simply referred to as the Russian (Russkiy) Toy Terrier.

The Russian Revolution of 1917 nearly exterminated the Russkiy Toy. The breeding of dogs for companionship was brought to a halt and the fate of the Russian Toy was uncertain. After the death of Stalin, a concentrated effort was made in several regions of the Soviet Union, including Moscow, Leningrad, Sverdlovsk, and Irkutsk to restore the Russian Toy to prominence. Whether by a mutation or the introduction of other unknown small breeds into various lines, a unique puppy was born in 1958. This son of a pair of smooth-coated parents became the foundation of the modern day Long Coat (called the Moscow Long Haired Toy Terrier in the early years). The first official standard for the two breed varieties was written in 1966. In the 1980s, a new breed standard declared that the Moscow Long Haired Toy Terrier and the Russian Toy Terrier were in fact two varieties of a single breed. In 2006, with the Russian Toy’s addition to the FCI list of recognized breeds, the “Terrier” was dropped from the breed’s name and is now called the Russian Toy, with both long and smooth coat varieties.

Did You Know?

The Russian Toy has been assigned the Toy Group designation.
The breed was developed in 18th century Russia and was a popular companion for the aristocracy.
The Russian Toy comes in two varieties: the Smooth Coat and the Long Coat.
The smooth-coated Russian Toy was once known as the Russian Toy Terrier and the long-coated Russian Toy was once known as the Moscow Long Haired Toy Terrier.
The term "Terrier" was dropped from the breed's name when it was added to the official list of breeds registered with The Fédération Cynologique Internationale.
Russian Toys are one of the smallest dog breeds in the world.
The Russian Toy has been recorded in the Foundation Stock Service since August 2008.
The Russian Toy has been approved to compete in AKC Companion Events since January 1, 2010.
At the October 2017 Board meeting the Russian Toy was approved to compete in the Miscellaneous Class effective June 27, 2018. The Russian Toy Club of America will serve as the AKC Parent Club to represent the Russian Toy.

The Breed Standard

Colors & Markings


Description Standard Colors Registration Code
Black & Tan Check Mark For Standard Color 018
Blue & Tan Check Mark For Standard Color 044
Brown & Tan Check Mark For Standard Color 262
Red Check Mark For Standard Color 140
Red & Brown Check Mark For Standard Color 143
Red Sable Check Mark For Standard Color 155