Beagles standing in a frosty field on a cold morning.
Beagle

What's a dog breed?

People have been breeding dogs since prehistoric times. The earliest dog breeders used wolves to create domestic dogs. From the beginning, humans purposefully bred dogs to perform various tasks. Hunting, guarding, and herding are thought to be among the earliest job…

What's a dog breed?

People have been breeding dogs since prehistoric times. The earliest dog breeders used wolves to create domestic dogs. From the beginning, humans purposefully bred dogs to perform various tasks. Hunting, guarding, and herding are thought to be among the earliest jobs eagerly performed by the animal destined to be called “man’s best friend.”

For thousands of years, humans bred dogs toward the physical and mental traits best suited for the work expected of them. The sleek Greyhound types bred to chase fleet-footed prey, and the huge mastiff types used as guard dogs and warriors, are two ancient examples of dogs bred for specific jobs.

As humans became more sophisticated, so did their dogs. Eventually, there emerged specific breeds of dogs, custom-bred to suit the breeders’ local needs and circumstances. The Greyhound, for instance, was the foundation type for the immense Irish Wolfhound and the dainty Italian Greyhound. All three have a distinct family resemblance, but you’d never mistake one for another.

So, then, when is a breed a breed and not just a kind or type of dog? The simplest way to define a breed is to say it always “breeds true.” That is, breeding a purebred Irish Setter to another purebred Irish Setter will always produce dogs instantly recognizable as Irish Setters.

Each breed’s ideal physical traits, movement, and temperament are set down in a written document called a “breed standard.” For example, the breed standard sets forth the traits that make a Cocker Spaniel a Cocker Spaniel and not a Springer Spaniel.

The AKC standard for each breed originates with a “parent club,” the AKC-recognized national club devoted to a particular breed. Once approved by the AKC, a standard becomes both the breeder’s “blueprint” and the instrument used by dog show judges to evaluate a breeder’s work.

There are over 340 dog breeds known throughout the world. The American Kennel Club recognizes 199 breeds.

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Poodle (Miniature)

Poodle (Miniature)

Whether Standard, Miniature, or Toy, and either black, white, or apricot, the Poodle stands proudly…

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Poodle (Standard)

Poodle (Standard)

Whether Standard, Miniature, or Toy, and either black, white, or apricot, the Poodle stands proudly…

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Poodle (Toy)

Poodle (Toy)

Despite his diminutive size, the Toy Poodle stands proudly among dogdoms true aristocrats. Beneath…

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Portuguese Podengo

Portuguese Podengo

Portuguese Podengos are lively, agile, playful, alert, highly intelligent but not always easy to…

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Portuguese Podengo Pequeno

Portuguese Podengo Pequeno

Classified as a hound, the alert and playful little Portuguese Podengo Pequeno is a quick, athletic…

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Portuguese Water Dog

Portuguese Water Dog

The bright and biddable Portuguese Water Dog was bred to be an all-around fisherman's helper. The…

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Pug

Pug

Once the mischievous companion of Chinese emperors, and later the mascot of Holland's royal House…

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Puli

Puli

No other breed can be mistaken for the Puli, a compact but powerful herder covered from head to…

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Pumi

Pumi

A compact, nimble-footed herder of Hungarian origin, the Pumi is easily recognized by a…

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Pyrenean Shepherd

Pyrenean Shepherd

Enthusiastic, mischievous, and whip-smart, the Pyrenean Shepherd is an indefatigable herde…

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Rat Terrier

Rat Terrier

An American original, with a breed name said to be coined by Teddy Roosevelt, the Rat Terrier is a…

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Redbone Coonhound

Redbone Coonhound

The streamlined Redbone Coonhound, an American original, is even-tempered, mellow, and kindly a…

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