Bloodhound standing in three-quarter view facing forward
Bloodhound

What's a dog breed?

People have been breeding dogs since prehistoric times. The earliest dog breeders used wolves to create domestic dogs. From the beginning, humans purposefully bred dogs to perform various tasks. Hunting, guarding, and herding are thought to be among the earliest job…

What's a dog breed?

People have been breeding dogs since prehistoric times. The earliest dog breeders used wolves to create domestic dogs. From the beginning, humans purposefully bred dogs to perform various tasks. Hunting, guarding, and herding are thought to be among the earliest jobs eagerly performed by the animal destined to be called “man’s best friend.”

For thousands of years, humans bred dogs toward the physical and mental traits best suited for the work expected of them. The sleek Greyhound types bred to chase fleet-footed prey, and the huge mastiff types used as guard dogs and warriors, are two ancient examples of dogs bred for specific jobs.

As humans became more sophisticated, so did their dogs. Eventually, there emerged specific breeds of dogs, custom-bred to suit the breeders’ local needs and circumstances. The Greyhound, for instance, was the foundation type for the immense Irish Wolfhound and the dainty Italian Greyhound. All three have a distinct family resemblance, but you’d never mistake one for another.

So, then, when is a breed a breed and not just a kind or type of dog? The simplest way to define a breed is to say it always “breeds true.” That is, breeding a purebred Irish Setter to another purebred Irish Setter will always produce dogs instantly recognizable as Irish Setters.

Each breed’s ideal physical traits, movement, and temperament are set down in a written document called a “breed standard.” For example, the breed standard sets forth the traits that make a Cocker Spaniel a Cocker Spaniel and not a Springer Spaniel.

The AKC standard for each breed originates with a “parent club,” the AKC-recognized national club devoted to a particular breed. Once approved by the AKC, a standard becomes both the breeder’s “blueprint” and the instrument used by dog show judges to evaluate a breeder’s work.

There are over 340 dog breeds known throughout the world. The American Kennel Club recognizes 193 breeds.

American Eskimo Dog

American Eskimo Dog

The American Eskimo Dog combines striking good looks with a quick and clever mind in a total…

See More
American Hairless Terrier

American Hairless Terrier

The American Hairless Terrier, a Louisiana native, is a smart, inquisitive, and playful dog tha…

See More
Australian Terrier

Australian Terrier

The diminutive Australian Terrier is plucky, spirited, and smart—how did they fit so much dog…

See More
Basenji

Basenji

The Basenji, Africa’s “Barkless Dog,” is a compact, sweet-faced hunter of intelligence and…

See More
Beagle

Beagle

Not only is the Beagle an excellent hunting dog and loyal companion, it is also happy-go-lucky…

See More
Bedlington Terrier

Bedlington Terrier

Graceful terriers in sheep’s clothing, Bedlington Terriers, named for the English mining shire…

See More
Bichon Frise

Bichon Frise

The small but sturdy and resilient Bichon Frise stands among the world’s great “personality…

See More
Border Terrier

Border Terrier

Admirers of the upbeat and agile Border Terrier cherish their breed’s reputation as a tough…

See More
Boston Terrier

Boston Terrier

The Boston Terrier is a lively little companion recognized by his tight tuxedo jacket, sporty bu…

See More
Cairn Terrier

Cairn Terrier

Cairn Terriers are happy, busy little earthdogs originally bred to fearlessly root out foxes and…

See More
Cardigan Welsh Corgi

Cardigan Welsh Corgi

The Cardigan Welsh Corgi is a masterpiece of the breeder’s art: Every aspect of its makeup i…

See More
Cavalier King Charles Spaniel

Cavalier King Charles Spaniel

The Cavalier King Charles Spaniel wears his connection to British history in his breed’s name…

See More