Guide to the Scottish Terrier Club of America Collection (1902-2005)

2007:010 - AKD 9.324S

11 Cubic Feet
Collection Processed by Kari Dalane

PROVENANCE
A gift of Mary O'Neal, historian of the Scottish Terrier Club of America (2007).

ARRANGEMENT
The Collection has been arranged into eight series and multiple sub-series: (1) Meeting Minutes; (2) Documents (a) Binder 1, (b) Binder 2, (c) Binder 3, (d) Binder 4, (e) Binder 5 (f) Membership cards, (g) Standard Operating Procedure Manual, (h) Stud cards, (i) Winners lists; (3) Publications (a) Books, (b) Catalogues, (c) Magazines, (d) Membership Rosters, (e) Miscellaneous, (f) Newsletters, (g) Yearbook; (4) Photographs/Negatives (a) General, (b) Albums, (c) Negatives, (d) Photo Discs; (5) Scrapbooks (a) 1, (b) 2, (c) 3, (6) Videos; (7) Ephemera, (8) Clippings (a) Miscellaneous, (b) Journal clippings

Menu from the 1937 Annual STCA dinner.

HISTORICAL INFORMATION

The Club

The Scottish Terrier Club of America was founded on 1 Oct. 1900. The meeting minutes from the first annual meeting on 19 Feb. 1902 note that Mrs. Jack Brazier and her "small band of followers known in a jocular way as the Apostles" were the impetus behind its formation. The Scottish Terrier Club of America was preceded by a club called The American Scottish Terrier Club, which dissolved due to factions. The first meeting minutes of the STCA also note that "it is to be regretted that the present club had to partly build on the ruins of the old structure..." However, the secretary goes on to resolve that the new club must lay its foundation carefully so as to withstand the test of time. The club has certainly done this since it was admitted as a member of the AKC in 1901, making it the 25th breed club to be recognized by The American Kennel Club, and has been parent club of the Scottish Terrier ever since.

The first annual meeting, held in the Ashland House in New York City, sets the tone for the future of the club. During this meeting, the members of the club remark with enthusiasm that there are already 42 members. Those present hope to continue to expand the club, in order to become the largest terrier specialty club in the United States. A parallel is drawn to Scottish Terriers in England, which were at that time quite close in numbers to the popular Fox Terriers. Members of the American club hope to emulate this trend. However, they do pass an important resolution to limit competition to American-bred dogs at all club specials. This highlights the emphasis the club places on American breeding programs, even at this early stage.

The club had its first specialty show in 1910, with Walescott Invader going Best of Breed. The next specialty shows were held in 1915, 1916 and 1917. Starting in 1922, hardly a year went by without a specialty. February specialty shows in New York City were held in conjunction with the Associated Terrier Clubs from 1936-1965. Member numbers had been on the increase, and by 1971 there were over 500 club members. There was also a shift in the geography of club members. Up until the 1960's, most all Scottish Terrier Club of America members, as well as most Scottish Terrier owners and breeders, lived on the East Coast. The advent of the airplane made travel easier, and Scotties began to make their way westward and southward. This created the need for a rotating specialty show, so that more people could get their Scotties to shows. The first of these was held in St. Louis in May 1965. Regional clubs have played an important role in the development of the club since that time. In their centennial year, 2000, there were 21 regional specialty clubs. The Scottish Terrier Club of America refers to these clubs as "the local extensions of the STCA." Aside from putting on specialty shows and supporting regional club specialties, the STCA typically puts on at least one obedience trial, one agility trial and one earthdog trial each year.

This unidentified newspaper clipping is a testament to the sturdiness of the average "Scotch terrier".

Another major club function is the setting up and running The Health Trust Fund of the STCA. This organization's mission is to "detect and investigate health problems, monitor health in Scottish Terriers, participate in research to enhance prevention of illness... and promote and encourage constructive attitudes towards health concerns." The Health Trust Fund was formed as a nonprofit organization on 4 October 1994 after Gail Gaines had petitioned for it. She had been sending articles on health to Scottish Terrier owners and breeders for years and thought that a Health Trust Fund would be able to do even more. The HTF's first major project was a health survey which was distributed to American, Canadian and European breeders, in an attempt to provide a picture of the Scottish Terriers health and determine where future projects should be focused. This first survey was conducted in 1995. A second similar survey was conducted in 2005. Today the HTF requests and evaluates research proposals from veterinary schools and funds, those that closely relate to Scottish Terrier health. The Health Trust Fund believes that the future looks bright for the health of the naturally hardy and generally healthy Scottish Terrier.

(Above) Catalog for Scottish Terrier Club of America specialty show held on 24 May 1936 at the estate of Mr. and Mrs. Mark S. Matthews in Rye, New York.
(Above) An engraving of "Badger and Dogs" by J. Craig after L. Clennel featuring early terriers dated 1836.
(Above) An engraving entitled "Scotch Terrier" dated 1840.

The STCA offers approximately 20 awards, towards which members can work. The Frances G. Lloyd Memorial trophy is the oldest, awarded for the first time in 1921, and the most prestigious. There are also awards for stud dogs, juniors, and various other honors.

The STCA also has a rescue program to save Scottish Terriers. One survey conducted in 1997 concluded that at least 412 Scotties had passed through a rescue program in that year, either the STCA program's own or a regional club program. The STCA hopes to create a Health Trust this year in order to increase their rescue capabilities.

The Breed

The Scottish Terrier originates from the Highlands of Scotland. It is unclear exactly when the breed emerged as a distinct type, since five modern-day terrier breeds come from Scotland: the Dandie Dinmont Terrier, the Cairn Terrier, the West Highland White Terrier, the Skye Terrier, and the Scottish Terrier. In The History of Scotland from 1436-1561, John Leslie, Bishop of Ross, wrote of “a dog of low height which, creeping into subterraneous burrows, routs out foxes, badgers, martens and wildcats lurking in their dens”. The dog he described is likely the predecessor of the five terrier breeds that later emerged. All of these are relatively short-legged and hardy, well suited to their original role of keeping Scottish farms rodent free. The terriers were bred to be fearless, hardy and small enough to go to ground in pursuit. They had rough coats suitable for the cold weather of the north and were sturdy little dogs. The qualities of this non-distinct early terrier are still valued in the Scottish Terrier of today.

We also know that the Scottish Terrier predecessors had a typical feisty terrier temperament. In fact, George Douglas, who was made the first earl of Dumbarton in 1675, kept a pack of terriers from Scotland that was so tough he called them the “Diehard Pack”. He later went on to name his favorite regiment, The Royal Scots, “Dumbarton’s Diehards” after his dogs. The nickname ‘Diehard’ has stuck with the Scottish Terrier to this day.1

In The Book of the Scottish Terrier, Dr. Fayette C. Ewing of Nosegay Kennels claims that the five different breeds mentioned earlier emerged from the diverse regions of Scotland. The slight differences in leg and body length and color may have resulted from the geographical separation of the Scottish highlands, lowlands and moorlands. It is also argued that particular families had different aesthetic preferences when it came to their dogs, and that from their breeding programs the separate breeds gradually diverged. There was a great deal of confusion in the mid 19th century about the correct standard and name for the one “Scottish Terrier”. Some used the name Skye Terrier, Highland Terrier or Aberdeen Terrier, all of these being regions of Scotland. Other names included the Scotch Terrier, Scots Terrier, Otter Terrier, Cairn Terrier, Diehard, and Sorty Terrier. There was a general confusion about which names were appropriate for which dogs. Somehow the five breeds gradually solidified out of this uncertainty.

In 1860, a show in Birmingham, England had the first Scottish Terrier class. By 1880, the Scottish Terrier had come down to England in sufficient numbers to warrant a breed name and standard. The first Scottish Terrier Club, the Scottish Terrier Club of England, was formed in 1882. This club managed to precede even the Scottish Terrier Club of Scotland, which was founded in 1888. Around this time, breeders began to have definite ideas how a “Scottish Terrier” should look. A standard was drawn up to describe the perfect Scottish Terrier. Breeders began to select dogs very carefully in order to propagate the characteristics in the standard. Two major strains were started, one by English Ch. Allister and one by English Ch. Dundee. Nearly all present day Scotties descend from Ch. Allister, who was whelped in 1885. Allister’s two most important descendents, English Ch. Albourne Barty (1925) and English Ch. Heather Necessity (1927) were a turning point for Scottish Terriers. These dogs had shorter, more compact bodies and longer heads- characteristics that are visible in the modern day breed. American Scotties are mostly descended from Necessity, who was the most successful Scottish Terrier of his day in the show ring. A secondary group is descended from Barty.

(Left) English Ch. Allister, the dog from which most current Scottish Terriers descend.
(Right) A minor secondary line descends from English Ch. Dundee.

John S. Naylor was the first to show Scottish Terriers in America. At a show in Pittsburgh in 1884, he exhibited Tam Glen and Bonnie Belle, dogs he had imported from England.2 They were entered in the Rough-Haired terrier class at the first show Mr. James Mortimer, an Englishman who became superintendent of the Westminster Kennel Club and was a longtime AKC Delegate, ever judged in America. Mortimer also was a Scottish Terrier enthusiast, claiming that the dog “cannot be outrivaled by any other breed of terrier, or any other breed for that matter.”

Mr. Naylor went on to become the first big proponent of Scottish Terriers in America. In letters to Dr. Ewing, Naylor notes that the breed did not catch on immediately in the United States. Some people were initially interested in the dogs since they had heard “Scotch Terriers” were excellent rodent catchers, but most were simply looking for a pet. Many thought the Scottish Terrier to be unattractive and aloof. Naylor was hard-pressed to sell the dogs. He showed until 1899 and then threw in the towel, when it seemed his work was getting the breed nowhere.

(Above) An article written by Dr. Ewing about a dog show in Madison, New Jersey, featuring a photograph of Heather Aristocrat of Hitofa.
(Above) A newspaper clipping of Eleanor Roosevelt, soon to be first lady, with the family Scottish Terrier, "Maggie" 29 Jan. 1933.
(Above) Ch. Walsing Winning Trick of Edgerstoune handled by Phil Prentice and owned by Mrs. Wynant. Photo by Baird.
(Above) The prestigious Frances G. Lloyd Challenge Cup.

A second attempt was made to popularize the breed by Mr. Henry Brooks and Mr. Oliver Ames around 1890. Mr. J. L. Little joined the campaign a bit later. These three spent a good deal of money and time importing dogs and started American breeding programs. However, they faced little serious competition in the show ring and could barely give away their dogs, let alone sell them, so they became discouraged.

Finally in 1900 an American club was formed and the breed was put on solid ground thanks to the efforts of Dr. Ewing. His Kennel, Nosegay, became the best known and respected in Scottish Terriers for about forty years. As S. S. Van Dine put it in the introduction he wrote for one of Dr. Ewing’s books on Scottish Terriers, the man “has been one of the foremost breeders of Scottish terriers in this country, and he has probably had his finger in more Scottish terrier pies in the history of the Scottie in America than has any other man.” Ch. Nosegay Sweet William, the most famous and successful of Dr. Ewing’s dogs, helped to bring the breed into favor with terrier lovers.

From 1900 until the middle of the century, the breed steadily grew in popularity. Americans began to appreciate the Scottish Terrier for his fierce loyalty and spunk. In the 1940s, Scotties enjoyed a sudden increase in popularity, ranking the 3rd most popular purebred dog breed in the United States. Many suspect that this is due to the fact that Franklin Roosevelt had a Scottie named “Fala”. This dog reportedly received more fan mail than many presidents did. The breed has since dropped in popularity, ranking 45th in 2007 AKC registration statistics.

There are still many Scottish Terrier enthusiasts. A favorite quote, that reappears throughout Scottish Terrier history, was written by Francis G. Lloyd: “All dogs are good; any terrier is better; a Scottie is best.” The typical Scottish Terrier is just as devoted to his master as his master is to him. He is also courageous, stout hearted and fearless. He will fight to the last breath, regardless of the odds against him: hence the continued use of his nickname ‘Diehard’. He is described as independent and dignified, not as lighthearted as other breeds. He is selective with his affections and wary of strangers. Despite his independence and at times aloofness, the Scottish Terrier is a devoted family dog. He is also very sensitive to criticism and will work hard to win your praise.

The Scottie is very hardy and there are no widespread or serious health problems that plague the breed. The most common health problem is “Scottie Cramp”, but this disease is quite benign. It usually affects dogs when under stress and causes their legs to move out to the sides instead of forwards and backwards. This is referred to as “winging”. Von Willebrand’s Disease, a bleeding disorder, also afflicts a small number of Scotties, as do seizures and cancer. However, most Scottish Terriers have long healthy lives.

SCOPE AND CONTENT

The strongest parts of the collection are the scrapbooks which are located in the publications series and oversized boxes. These scrapbooks were assembled circa 1926 and are the earliest detailed information on the breed in the collection. They also help to fill in a gap between the first meeting minutes from 1902 and the by and large sparse records for the next forty years. They contain photographs of early Scottish Terriers and clippings about famous members of the breed, such as Ch. Albourne Barty. Though the scrapbooks are a valuable resource, there still exists a lack of information about the club’s activities in the early years. This probably is the weakest part of the collection.

The first series in the collection is meeting minutes. This is a relatively small series, but contains important information about and records of the club. The minutes are from 1964-1974 (not inclusive), 1985-1990 (not inclusive) and 2002. They have been placed in acid free folders and arranged chronologically.

The documents series is wide-ranging, with five sub-series arranged alphabetically. They include: binders, membership cards, stud cards, a Standard Operating Procedure Manual, and winners lists. This is a valuable resource for those interested in the history of the Scottish Terrier in America and in the Scottish Terrier Club of America, due to its variety and scope.

The first sub-series consists of five binders. One of the most notable items in the first binder is the original meeting minutes from 19 Feb. 1902. It not only contains why they met, but also who was involved in the founding of the club. There also are financial statements, miscellaneous articles, correspondence, and breed standards from various points in the club’s history. The second binder contains lists of the winners of assorted trophies and prizes, as well as lists of notable dams and sires, which spans from circa 1900 – 1999. These well-known dogs are often from famous Scottish Terrier Kennels such as Ch. Dunbar’s Democrat of Sandoone, Eng. Ch. Heather Necessity, Ch. Walsing Winning Trick of Edgerstoune, Ch. Glendoune Gwenda and Ch. Viewpark Heatherbelle. There is also a list of winners and a photo of the Frances G. Lloyd Memorial Challenge Cup, which was first awarded in 1921 and is still present today. It is the most prestigious trophy a Scottish Terrier can win. The sub-series also includes Scottish Terrier stamps, and a few articles and clippings mostly dating from circa 1940-1960. The third binder contains contemporary information, which holds primarily correspondence, meeting minutes and board meeting minutes from 1989. There are also two membership applications, which include the club’s code of ethics. Additionally, there are documents relating to the Handbook, judges education and show information. The fourth binder contains the club Constitution and Bylaws from 1991 and a membership roster from 1994. The binder also includes photocopies of records from earlier shows, a breed standard and correspondence. The fifth binder consists primarily of voting ballots for accepting new members into the club from 1997-2005. The contents of each binder were removed from their original casings and placed in acid-free folders.

Photograph of Ch. Heather Necessity, a well known brood bitch descended from English Ch. Allister, born in 1927.

The next sub-series is the membership cards. These cards fill three boxes and range from 1960-1992, with the bulk in the last two decades. They are arranged based on the status of the member: active, nonpaying or deceased. These cards may be of interest to those conducting genealogical research or interested in former members. Membership cards were kept in their original order and placed in boxes.

The final sub-series in the document series are the Standard Operating Procedure Manual, stud cards and winner lists. The procedure manual is a detailed explanation of club rules and procedures, including its constitution and bylaws. The Stud cards are advertisements for early stud dogs dating back to the 1930s. The Stud cards were removed from their original box and placed into a small acid-free box. The winners’ lists date back to 1910 and include shows such as Montgomery County Kennel Club, which functions as a specialty for the club, as well as other shows primarily in New York and all on the east coast. These lists have been removed from their original format and placed in an acid free folder.

(Above) "Yes, sir, that's my baby" Engraving by Morgan Dennis, 1928
(Above) Photograph of Lady Alberta's puppies at four months 10 Sept. 1968
(Above) "When Do We Eat?" Engraving by Morgan Dennis

The next series in the collection is the publications series. This is the bulk of the collection, consisting primarily of catalogues and newsletters. The series also contains books, breed pamphlets, magazines, membership rosters and scrapbooks, which are arranged alphabetically.

The first sub-series contains catalogues primarily of specialty shows from 1936-2005. Some specialty shows were held in conjunction with other shows, chiefly Montgomery County Kennel Club. Most of the Scottish Terrier sections of these catalogues had already been removed from the whole catalogues; however, two catalogues from 2003 and 2004 are whole and intact. These catalogues can be found at the end of the specialty catalogue sub-series. There are also catalogues from regional specialty shows in the series, as well as a few miscellaneous catalogues from other shows. The catalogue sub-series begins with specialty catalogues, then moves to regional specialty catalogues and ends with miscellaneous catalogues. Each are arranged chronologically, with the exception of the Montgomery County Kennel Club catalogues noted above.

The other large sub-series is the club newsletter, The Bagpiper, which ranges from 1976-2001. These are important items, because they contain meeting minutes, which helps to fill in the gaps in the meeting minutes series.

The next series in the collection is photographs/negatives. This series consists of a number of albums that include photographs from as early as 1890. The photographs were removed from their original casings, placed in mylar envelopes and kept in the order within each album. The albums were then arranged chronologically. There is also a large collection of negatives of the various dog show winners from 1979-1983. The negatives were retained in order and maintained in their original acid-free envelopes. Additionally, there are three discs with photos of famous Scottish Terriers.

The next sub-series in the collection is one of particular interest. The scrapbooks series contains some of the earliest history of the breed in America. The books date back to the 1920s and include some items from even earlier times. They contain pedigrees, clippings and photographs. There is an extensive collection of pedigrees for both English and American dogs. Most of the photographs are unidentified, but the clippings feature such dogs as Ch. Albourne Barty, Ch. Heather Essential, Diehard Mac, and “Fala” with Eleanor Roosevelt. Two of the scrapbooks were kept in their original format except for loose materials, which were removed and placed in folders and can be found in the oversized boxes. The third scrapbook is filled with pedigrees and has been removed from its original format and placed in acid free folders.

The video series consist of two video tapes of the Montgomery County Kennel Club Specialty show from 1989. Each video was removed from its original cardboard casing and placed in appropriate enclosures.

The next series is ephemera and consists primarily of Annual Awards Banquet Programs from 1989-2003. There is also a menu from the Annual Banquet of 1937 which can be found with the oversized material.

The final series in the collection is the clipping series. This consists of journal clippings from 2002-2003 and miscellaneous clippings from 1934-2004.

Click here for inventory

1 Scottish Terrier Dog World: The Origins of the Breed, 2006. http://www.scottishterrierdog.com/history.htm
2 Ewing, Fayette C. The Book of the Scottish Terrier. New York, Orange Judd Publish Company, Inc. 1936.